Alien species is a species which brought into an unnatural ecosystem. Invasive species are species, both native species or not, which broadly affect the habitat, can cause environmental damage, economic loss, or harm for humans. Invasive alien species do not always invasive species not necessarily come from outside/foreign. Invasive Alien Species (IAS) is a combination of alien species and invasive species. Invasive Alien Species is a species introduced either intentionally or unintentionally outside their natural habitat, could be at the level of species, subspecies, varieties, and the nation, include whole organisms, parts of the body, gametes, seeds, eggs or propagules are able to live and reproduce in their new habitat, which then becomes
In some case “human activities have been and are continuing to alter the environment on local and global scales. Many of these changes are leading to dramatic changes in the biotic structure and piece of ecological communities, either from the mislaying of species or from the introduction of exotic species. Such alterations can preferable change the ways in which ecosystems work. Altered biodiversity has led to widespread cover for a number of both market (e.g., ecotourism, “mining” for medicines) and non-market (e.g., ethical, aesthetic) explanation” (Barbier et al. 1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al.
There are current evidences that relative sea level rise globally increased in the last several decades. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) has projected that the global annual sea-level rise about 2mm (1-3 mm/year in coastal areas of Asia) and projected to accelerate to a rate of about 5 mm per year over the next century. The rise of sea-level in Indonesia coastal areas have increased by 1-8mm per year (Asia Development Bank, 2009c). The effect of sea level rise on habitats suitable for aquaculture will be spatially variable over the next decade. The rates of sea-level rises are likely to accelerate.
Invasive species affect biodiversity as well as habitat eco structure in the environment. The highest threat invasive species pose to biodiversity is the threat on endangered species. Nearly 50 percent of the 1,900 endangered species are endangered because of invasive species and the ways in which it can alter an ecosystem. Invasive species are currently the second leading threat to biodiversity. Invasive species alone, have a stronger negative affect on biodiversity than forest clearing, disease and pollution combined.
Studies using fossils showed that most plant species in New Zealand is due to oceanic dispersal. The size of the role oceanic dispersal plays in the distribution of animals is debateable. Some studies show that oceanic dispersal plays a small role in the distribution of Southern Hemisphere animals, since animals have more difficulty crossing oceanic barriers. Other studies, however, suggest that most vertebrate species from the West Indies and Madagascar are derived from ancestors that used oceanic dispersal. Oceanic dispersal is not necessarily more important than vicariance, but oceanic dispersal has a large role in these disjunct
Higher temperature means more challenges the world might face in the near future and more events are likely to happen. According to some researches, the most pronounced increases observed over the last 25 years, and that will continue to go up, as scientists believe that temperature might increase by 1.5 to 6 Celsius degrees over the next 100 years. That will put all kinds of lives on this planet in danger. Wildlife is threatened with extinction from more wildfire, drought, tree diseases and insect outbreaks. Marine life is exposed, higher temperature causing more coral bleaching and more species move into deeper water to find new homes, furthermore, it is increasing ocean acidity and reducing oxygen level in deeper levels of the sea, that is all has a huge effect on marine life cycle, and behavior of marine species including its metabolism.
It is now accepted that climate change is one of the greatest threats facing mankind today and we cannot evade it, for it is a consequence of many years of our negligence and excessive harmful gas emission from energy generation, transport, different industries and even our improving technology. As a result, we are now facing these upshots of climate change. And these upshots include those on fisheries and aquaculture- which is the main topic of this research. Climate Change affects the survival, growth, reproduction and distribution of individuals within species but impacts can also be shown at the level of populations, communities, or entire ecosystems. Some anticipated consequences are falling of fish productivity, migration of species and localized extinctions, as well as the increased risk that are associated with extreme climate events like storms and hurricanes.
These have increased global temperature by 1.4º F since the 1880s. According to National Geographic, sea levels have been rising 3.5 millimeters annually since 1990. Sea levels have been changing for the last three million years, but they first started to rise alarmingly during 1993, according to
Although people stop adding extra greenhouse gases to the atmosphere these days, oceans will continue to get warmer for many years because they slowly absorb extra heat from the atmosphere. Warmer oceans affect weather patterns, cause more powerful tropical storms, and can influence a lot of sea life, such as corals and fish. Warmer oceans are also one of the major causes of rising sea level. • OCEAN