Renal causes affect the kidney directly, they include sepsis (when the immune system is overwhelmed by infections which causes the kidney to shut down), medication which are toxic to the kidney e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, and others) etc. lastly the post- renal causes include, obstruction of the bladder; the kidney produces more urine but due to the obstruction it acts like a dam instead of emptying and soon forces the kidney to shut down and kidney stones which only causes the disorder if only one kidney is present. The main cause of this conditions is the accumulation of waste products in the kidney. In some cases kidney failure can be treated and they can go back to normal
It is caused by the break down and death of neurons inside the brain, the reason for this is currently still unknown. The earliest symptom is typically a tremor in the hand of fingers. Over time this tremor spreads throughout the body and is accompanied by stiffening limbs and loss of autonomic actions such as blinking. The person
INTRODUCTION Approximately 36 million individuals have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) worldwide which is the common cause of dementia in the range of higher ages (Alzheimers.net, 2014). About 5% to 8% of people aged above 65, 15% to 20% of people aged above 75 and 25% to 50% of those aged above 85 are affected by Alzheimer’s disease (Duthey, 2013). Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversibly progressive disease of the brain characterised by gradual loss of memory, change in personality and a decline in cognitive functions such as language, perception and reasoning. An individual with Alzheimer’s disease would lose all mental and memory abilities in later stages (National Institute of Aging, 2011). It is believed that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the
Paget's Disease of bone is the result of abnormalities in the bone remodeling and breakdown process. This leads to bones within the body becoming quite misshaped and weak. A decrease in the activity of the cells, known as osteoclasts that participate in the breaking down of the bone cell matrix through the release of enzymes and mineral components is a contributing factor to Paget's disease. In addition to low osteoclast activity, the cells that build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, known as osteoblasts, continue to increasingly build the bone. This subsequently leads to excessive formation and breakdown of bone.
Because of this inability to contract effectively, the rest of the vital organs receive inadequate amount of blood resulting to inadequate tissue perfusion. There are two types of left-sided HF; systolic and diastolic failure. Systolic failure happens when the left ventricle doesn’t have the enough energy to pump normally the blood to the general circulation. As for diastolic failure, the left ventricle loses the ability to fill itself with blood during resting period resulting to inadequate amount of blood to be pumped out to the circulation (Weinrauch, 2008). The diastolic dysfunction will eventually lead to right-sided heart failure.
Myeloma is one type of cancer.Myeloma is a cancer that affects certain white blood cells in the bone marrow, called plasma cells. When the cancerous plasma cells fill the bone marrow, we are not able to make enough normal blood cells. They also make a lot of one type of antibody. As a result, various symptoms develop. Myeloma is sometimes called multiple myeloma or myelomatosis.
From there, the copper is broken down and sent to the jejunum to be absorbed by the body for use in various tasks such as the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen (a protein essential for tissue support, development, and elasticity), and melanin (a pigment that gives color to human skin, hair, and eyes). However, people suffering from Wilson’s disease are unable to eliminate copper in their bodies properly, and therefore it accumulates in various tissues. This can then lead to significant damage in areas
This is where the injury to the brain is caused by an alternative condition other than a traumatic injury to the brain itself. Examples of these conditions are in instances where the brain is deprived of oxygen in which cases brain tissue begins to die. It can also be a condition in which the brain tissue is directly attacked. Specific examples would include a stroke, heart attack, drug overdose or severe brain infections such as meningitis, just to mention a few. Finally, the vegetative state can be a as a result of progressive brain damage.
Primary or essential thrombocytosis happens when abnormal cells in the bone marrow make too many platelets. Reactive thrombocytosis happens when a condition like an infection or an injury causes too many platelets to form. What are the causes? The exact cause of primary thrombocytosis is not known. Reactive thrombocytosis may be caused by: Having your spleen surgically removed (splenectomy).
Fox Organization, it is obvious that this disease is a major problem. But what is it exactly? People with Parkinson’s disease lack dopamine-producing nerve cells, or neurons, since the disease targets and kills these cells. Dopamine is important for us because it is a chemical that allows messages to be sent of the parts of the brain that control movements and some forms of thinking. The disease also affects
This disease breaks down the coating of nerve fibers or axons, those are called Myelin Sheath. This disease also breaks down brain cells, which are imperative for everyday functioning and intelligence. Symptoms of this disease include, developmental mental delay, seizures, stiff limbs, Optic atrophy: wasting of a muscle of the eye, resulting in vision difficulties, deafness, irritability, spasms, and ataxia which is the
The disease may vary in different cases, the famous Hall of Fame baseball player, Lou Gehrig was diagnosed at age 39 and died a mere two years later. Athletes have been shown to have been getting the disease at a younger age due to repetitive head trauma received from contact sports. Repetitive head trauma has been linked to the deposits of Tau protein in the brain which then leaks into the spinal cord then poisoning the motor neurons. Unfortunately there is no cure for ALS at this time, only technology and apparatuses used to aid those suffering from