In late prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair and become a tetrad. Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that are very similar. One comes from a mother, and one from a father. For homologous chromosomes, they have the same gene, but they can have different alleles, which means it can have an alternative form of a gene, that may create a different trait. In metaphase I, spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.
Natural cloning also occurs in mammals, including humans. Twins are produced, when a fertilised egg splits. This split creates multiple embryos with almost the same genetic information. (Information gathered from this year’s Biology textbook) Artificial Cloning: There are three types of artificial cloning, namely gene, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Gene: this is when a desire gene is located and cloned from DNA extracted from the organism that contains the desired gene.
To be effective, the advancement of genetic engineering needs to follow the goals of the Genome Project. Linda Tagliaferro explains the Genome Project and its “revolution in medicine”. This project was huge back around 1989, which had plans to create the perfect human beings. The project planned to help human change their genes and make them stronger to prevent diseases and help avoid people who have “genetic flaws” (Tagliaferro). Scientists will take the egg and sperm of a healthy human female and male, then combined them to test it genes and if it has developed any sort of disease.
However, there are animal cloning projects aimed at conserving endangered or extinct species. GSK (2003) and McCreath (2000) provided an example of using animal to treat a disease through the production of transgenic sheep in order to express human alpha-1-antitrypsin with the intention of treating alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, which develops to emphysema. In the therapeutic cloning category, scientists see the method as a way to enhance regenerative medicine by cutting out the possibilities of immune rejection and in treatment of genetic disorders when used in relation to gene therapy (Kfoury, 2007). Furthermore, there is also argument that therapeutic cloning is not the same procedure as recreating organisms and does not intend to do so; the parent embryonic cells harvested are for use in medical treatments only, they are propagated in order to produce cells, tissue cells, muscle cells, and other types of cells (Terec-Vlad & Terec-Vlad, 2013). >>> General Opinion <<< 2
To transfer genes, scientists use yeast cells instead of bacteria because yeast cells are eukaryotic and they can translate genes from other eukaryotes. To transfer DNA, a vector is used in genetic engineering is a carrier. Bacteria contain vectors called plasmids, which are small circular pieces of DNA within the bacteria. An example in medicine would be diabetes. Before genetic engineering was common, doctor’s cures diabetes with animal insulin obtained from farm animals, but that used to cause allergic reactions in some patients.
Microchimerism can also happen during pregnancy when cells from a foetus go through the placenta into the mother’s body and cells from the mother pass through the placenta into the foetus. This was proven when scientists found DNA of the child in the brain of the mother. Also non-identical twins can exchange cells with one another in the uterus, therefore they would have foreign genetic material in their bodies, which would make them
Those murders save lives and provide a lot of medical advancement they are rescuers to human beings. Scientists necessitate the use of animal testing to improve their research and make tremendous progress. Animal testing is not a new idea, it has been practiced ever since the 500B.C(last name1, date). this subject refers to procedures performed on living animals for purposes of research into basic biology and diseases, assessing the effectiveness of new medicinal products (last name2, date). Animals are used in common scientific procedures such as: toxicity test, exposure to drugs, genetic manipulation, food and water deprivation and many other things.
The genetics are identical and crossing over does not take place in mitosis. The definition of mitosis is a process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in 2 producing replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell. Mitosis function is cellular reproduction and general growth and repair of the body. Mitosis has Steps: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. Karyokinesis occurs in Interphase and Cytokinesis occurs in telophase.
According to Wikipedia, Transgenic organisms can be defined as, “an organism that has been genetically altered by adding genes into, and out of, the organism to achieve the desired outcome, this process is called genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is made possible through certain techniques within biotechnology and bioengineering”. More and more organisms, including plants and animals, are being modified today. These processes are justified based on their supposed “endless benefits”, but at what cost? This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals.
Then, animal biotechnology is that animals can be used as "bioreactors" to produce important medical proteins such as antibodies (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). It also utilizes as model organisms for the basic research as gene "knockout" experiment which disrupt a gene to observe what functions are affected. Next, forensic biotechnology is the study of DNA fingerprinting which detects a unique DNA pattern to convict criminals. It also uses in paternity cases, tracking, and confirming the spread of the organisms such as tuberculosis and E.coli (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). Bioremediation is the process of using biotechnology to clean up environment pollution, which causes of industrial progress.