The most common treatment for these infections, caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the antibiotics. There are many kinds of antibiotics using in the modern days, but the first kind of antibiotic being introduced for treating Staphylococcus aureus was Penicillin in 1943. This kind of antibiotic stops the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that makes the bacterial cell well stronger. This eventually makes the cell wall formation and degradation become imbalanced, consequently lead to the cell to die. Other kinds of antibiotic were quick introduced for treating Staphylococcus as well.
Antibiotic medications have saved many people’s lives. Unfortunately antibiotics are no longer as effective in stopping pathogenic bacteria infection. Currently there is an antibiotic resistance crisis since may bacteria have become or are becoming resistant to all of the antibiotics developed. Instead of researching new antibiotics, which will continue to promote antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship should be promoted specifically dealing with preventing infections, monitoring antibiotic prescription, and developing laboratory tests that provide accurate results faster. Hospitals need to reduce the infections contracted during patients stays in their facilities.
Scientists should focus on finding new means of combatting bacterial infections because antibiotic resistant bacteria have arisen from the overuse of antibiotics and research on antibiotic alternatives yield promising results. Antibiotics have been used to treat bacterial infections since the first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Although it was not distributed among the general public until 1945, it was widely used in World War II for surgical and wound infections among the Allied Forces. Fleming’s antibiotic discovery was hailed as a “miracle drug” that opened the door to a world where infectious diseases were virtually non-existent. Although Fleming’s discovery won him the Nobel Prize, he warned of bacteria becoming resistant to penicillin in his acceptance speech.
Available literature suggests that alterations in normal microbial community of several organ systems can further influence HIV transmission, progression and the potential for a vaccine or cure. Despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV continue to have excess non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. Much work has gone into elucidating the mechanisms by which intestinal microbiota augment or disrupt intestinal barrier function, immune response to antigen and systemic immune
Without western medicine, we would still be using the old techniques that ease the mind but not a broken leg. Advances in technologies have shown us what we need to eat and what things to eat to live longer. They showed us how we can decrease the chance of getting a disease. Also, medication has taken a new turn and has solved many problems that used to kill people and even animals. They have solved diseases like: tetanus, rabies, polio and even Rinderpest which was a cattle equivalent measles
1.0 INTRODUCTION In the recent time increase in multiple drug resistance by microbial pathogens become a serious health problem to mankind worldwide. The increase has slowed down the development of new synthetic antimicrobials drugs and has necessitated the search for new antimicrobials from alternative source (Peng et al., 2006). It is aroused due to indiscriminate and repetitive use of antimicrobial drugs coupled with inadequate diseases treatment (Shariff, 2001). To acquire drug resistance microbes have developed series of mechanism to render drug useless for the treatment and control of infections (Ritch-Kro et al., 1996).One way to prevent antibiotic resistance is by using new compound which
However, due to the available extensive knowledge of botulism, it is possible that Botulinum toxin of a higher stability could be engineered in the future. 6 Development of new technologies such as genetic engineering and easy access to information are always the two important factors that contribute to the misuse of biological warfare agents. Through these knowledge and information, virulence and potency of the agent can be further improved to make an efficient bioweapons.7 Unfortunately, a development of antibiotic-resistant microorganism can take place due to such misuse and development of newer strains, which then lead to increased invasiveness and pathogenicity of commensals. This causes an enhanced resistance to potent and new antibiotics, which eventually lead to failure of drugs to protect the population against lethal
Future research about the specific interactions between fH and fHbp can lead to a better model of N. meningitidis in the human body. This information can be used primarily in prophylactic treatment, in the form of vaccines, since the fHbp is an antigen specific for N. meningitidis (Madico et al. 2006). Already some vaccines are on the market, but they are not completely efficient and not suited for all the serotypes of N. meningitidis (Seib et al. 2009; Lo et al.
So, what is the definition of health care associated infections? They are infections that patients acquire while being hospitalized to receive treatment for their conditions either medical or surgical. Many of the HCAIs are preventable. In the modern healthcare, there are many types of invasive procedures that is used to treat patients to help them recover, also some devices are used, and all can be a potential risk for transmitting an infection to the patient while receiving the treatment. Instruments used during surgery can be a source of Infection, catheters are a source of urinary tract infections, and ventilators are a source of respiratory tract infections.
On the other hand, they also have a disadvantage for patients who suffer from frequent infections. The regular intake of antibiotics triggers antibiotic resistance. This happens when bacteria resist the influences of the antibiotics. Therefore, patients must follow the clinical directions carefully. ( (n.d.).