MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacterial strains and culture conditions Two S. aureus strains were used in the present study; S. aureus 8325-4 (SigB-) and SH1000 representing a SigB+.strain. Overnight cultures were grown in Luria Broth (LB) at 37°Cwith shaking at 150 rpm. Exposure to antibiotics was carried out as detailed below. Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich CO. 10 mg/ml stock solution of antibiotic were prepared freshly with 0.1N HCl and stored at -20°C. During the experiment we diluted with sterile water 1:10 and 1:100 depending on the different drug concentration.
Durham’s tubes filled with the broth were placed in each of the test tubes in an inverted position. Then the tubes were sterilized. After sterilization, the test tubes were inoculated with fresh bacterial cultures and one test tube was kept as control. The inoculated tubes were incubated at 37±1o C for 24-48 h (Aneja, 2001). After incubation, tubes were observed for the colour change in medium due to the production of acid and gas production.
The culture was then streaked on Asbhy’s N-free agar plates and incubated at 37 ºC for 24h. Production of ammonia by the isolate was quantified by the method of Goswami et al. (2014). Bacterial culture grown in Asbhy’s N-free liquid medium was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 10 min and 0.2 ml culture supernatant was mixed with 1ml Nessler’s reagent and total volume was made 8.5 ml by adding ammonia free distilled water. Development of brown to yellow colour is indicative of ammonia production.
In order to synthesize this compound, measure out 1 gram of NaC2H3O2.Weighed 1 gram of NaC2H3O2 and mixed it with ionized water. Boiled 12 mL of 1.0M Acetic Acid added into a beaker containing the sodium carbonate on a hot plate until all the liquid is evaporated leaving solid precipitate form inside of the beaker. Weigh the precipitate form and mix it with water until fully dissolved. Weigh the precipitate remaining. A flame test and a halide ion test were performed.
Antibiotic medications have saved many people’s lives. Unfortunately antibiotics are no longer as effective in stopping pathogenic bacteria infection. Currently there is an antibiotic resistance crisis since may bacteria have become or are becoming resistant to all of the antibiotics developed. Instead of researching new antibiotics, which will continue to promote antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship should be promoted specifically dealing with preventing infections, monitoring antibiotic prescription, and developing laboratory tests that provide accurate results faster. Hospitals need to reduce the infections contracted during patients stays in their facilities.
INTRODUCTION An antimicrobial is an agent that kills or inhibits the growth or reproduction of microbes (i.e. antiseptics and disinfectants). Finding out which antiseptics and disinfectants are most effective is very important as without good health people cannot function properly in society and will be continuously sick. Non-organic antimicrobials were considered miracle chemicals when they were first introduced. Even though these products promise us a better lifestyle and a safer environment for families and children to grow up in, the overuse of antibacterial cleaning products in the house may be creating tough of multi-resistant bacteria.
After fixation with sublimate acetic the material is washed for 20-24 hours in running water. It is further treated with iodine in 70% alcohol to assure complete removal of the mercury. Now the blocks were prepared & sections were cut from 6-10 microns in thickness. Observations of both living & fixed material were made with Meopta & Carlzeis Zena binocular research microscope. Photomicrographs were made with the help of Meopta attachment camera.
The non-specific resistance of gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a limitation in the treatments of infections of these organisms. However, the general pattern of resistance is well known and stable, so that drugs are prescribed of which the infecting organism are not inherently resistant. Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics usually but not always after exposure to the antibiotics, this type of resistance results from changes in the bacterial genome. In bacteria, acquired resistance is driven by two genetic processes, which are mutation and selection that are
Abstract: A report discussing the efficiency of prevention strategies against HIV infection as well as overviewing the life cycle of the virus and the modes of transmission to different hosts. The virus attacks CD4+ lymphocytes and impairs the self-mediated immunity of cells. This leaves the infected vulnerable to certain infections and cancers which result in death. ARV’s are the current mode of treatment and only slow down the viral replication of HIV. Prevention strategies have greatly reduced the amount of deaths caused by HIV.
Antibacterial assay The screening was done by disc diffusion method. The extracts were tested against Escherichia coli. A loopful of the pure bacterial culture was suspended in nutrient broth and incubated for 24 hours. Nutrient agar media was sterilized and poured into plates. After solidification, 0.1ml of the inoculum was spread over the agar evenly using L rod.