The acute minimal lethal dose of arsenic in adults is estimated to be 70 to 200 mg or 1 mg/kg/day (Laparra et al. 2005). Arsenic can be present in many forms, but the forms that is highly toxic to humans, and exist in rice, are is its inorganic form of Arsenate(AsV) and Arsenite(AsIII).
Arsenic can either cause a quick, agonizing death, or it could make a living organism very sick. It is even linked to cancer. It’s not conclusive to whether or not arsenic actually causes cancer, but there is a minute amount of evidence that connects arsenic to cancer within lab animals. There are however studies that show that arsenic damages whole chromosomes. Arsenic does not damage the DNA in inherited genetic material.
The less common route of exposure is the dermal route, e.g. dermal contact when handling preserved wood products containing arsenic (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, 2010). 2. Distribution of Arsenic: After absorption, arsenic is widely distributed by the blood throughout the body. Distribution of arsenic to the spleen, liver, kidneys, heart and lungs usually occurs within 24
Direct sources of water pollution include runoff, industrial waste, sewage, and human waste. Indirect sources include air pollution and sediment from construction sites. Industrial waste can lead to air pollution, which can ultimately lead to the pollution of water. This is also called atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric pollution is caused by pollutants such as smoke from factories entering the atmosphere and being carried to waterways.
The hydrolysis formed salicylic concentration which was mixed with iron(III) solution to form a purple complex. This was then use to study under the UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy which gave absorbance values recorded at 525nm to determine the concentration of salicylic acid using the Beer Lambert’s Law and later corrected to find the actual concentrations. The concentrations of aspirin at various intervals was found from salicylic concentrations. Upon plotting a graph of ln(aspirin) vs time, it produced a linear equation from which the gradient gave the rate constant of 0.0083min-1 and the overall shape of the graph concluding this reaction to be pseudo first order with respect to the concentration of aspirin with the deviations and improvements as
Nitrogen comes from decomposing organic materials like manure, plants, and human wastes. Often the nitrogen (N) comes from ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4). It is the primary source of nitrogen for plants, and it occurs naturally in soil and water. But if the levels of nitrate get too high, it can pose a potential health risk. Sources of excess nitrate in water include fertilizers, septic systems, waste water treatment effluent, animal wastes, industrial wastes, and food processing wastes.
Successful treatment of acute high lethal dose of Acrylamide poisoning Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects and is classified as 2A carcinogens in human being. Acute or chronic poisonings with this agent happens due to skin, respiratory or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on dose, contact duration and frequency. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies for reducing of oxidative effects. Minimal lethal dose of acrylamide is less than 500 mg/kg in adults.
1.2 Statement of the Problem As cited in Exnner and Spadling, 1993, Groundwater pollution with nitrate is a global problem in many parts of the world; groundwater is the source of drinking, agricultural, industrial and domestic uses. In Ethiopia the degree of pollution is generally not large except the surface waters of Addis Ababa and groundwater of Dire Dawa city. Nitrate is one of the major contaminants in urban area in different parts of the world including agricultural areas where fertilizers are being extensively used. The possible sources for the enrichment of nitrate in both cities could likely be waste disposal in the urbanized areas and agricultural activities in rural areas and also the combined effects in some others. The nitrate
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study According to Bothner, Buchholtz, Brink and Manheim (1998) contamination of water supplies by industrial waste is as a result of various types of industrial processes and disposal practices. According to the source, industries that use large amounts of water for processing have the potential to pollute or contaminate waterways through the discharge of their waste into streams and rivers, or by run-off and seepage of stored wastes into nearby water sources. Other disposal practices which cause water contamination include deep well injection and improper disposal of wastes in surface impoundments. Industrial waste consists of numbers of both organic and inorganic substances. Examples of organic wastes include pesticide residues, solvents and cleaning fluids, dissolved residue from fruits and vegetables, lignin from pulp and paper to name a few.