The Habsburg Monarchy

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The Habsburg monarchy or Austrian monarchy the description for the rule of the Austrian Habsburgs, in which the person of the monarch linking the Austrian hereditary lands, Kingdom of the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Hungary and the territories in the Netherlands and Italy.

The present period is the division of the Habsburg dynasty in the Spanish and Austrian branch (in 1624-56) to the establishment of the Austrian Empire in 1804 (and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806). Since the Austrian monarch at the same time as Roman-German king and emperor, the roles are intertwined, and were sometimes difficult separable. The role of the emperor, who was initially the most important, has decreased by weakening the Empire during the
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Karel is like Maximilian's successor became German King, the Spanish king, the ruler of 17 Dutch provinces and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A prudent ruler, educated in tolerance in Delft in the Netherlands, he is nurturing an idea of a united Catholic Europe, solid in defense against the Turks. Its main rival was the French king Francis I, which is precisely engaged in contacts with the Turks. Karlovo greatest burden that has prevented further homogenization of the Holy Roman Empire, it was the schism and intolerance in the Christian church; a large part of the North and the German nobility was defined by Protestantism and thus also towards a single European country.

In the years 1522-23 is also Karel V. Austrian hereditary lands allocated brother Ferdinand. Since then, the Habsburg dynasty divided into two branches: the Spanish-Dutch and Austrian-German. The first was the Spanish overseas discoveries economically stronger and it then belonged to the imperial crown; the second is the marriage of Ferdinand I. with Princess Anna (1521), we can expect the Czech crown and
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After the brilliant victory of the Austrian army in the battle at Sisak (22 June 1593), to which they also contributed many soldiers and nobles with Kranjska, has developed a long-term war (1592-1606), in which the surge of events on both sides of victories and defeats . Since 1595 they were on the imperial side fought well Sedmograjci. But when the second resignation of Prince Sigismund Báthoryja (1602) Imperial troops occupied the land and started despite warnings from military commanders, to introduce anti-Reformation measures were predominantly German-Lutheran town above Hungary (Saxon settlers) and Transylvania turned against the emperor. Imperial Commander has responded with draconian rigor, which is the resistance will increase. When the Rudolf II. did not listen to the requirements of the Hungarian National Assembly, he stepped on the forehead disaffected nobles hitherto loyal to the emperor Calvinist nobleman István Bocskai and was elected prince of Transylvania. Bocskai has found many adherents in the upper Hungary. In the years 1604-05 he led against the Habsburgs the Hungarian liberation struggle. Imperial troops were forced to withdraw, which enabled the Turks to be re-conquered some Important positions. Finally, the Bocskai subordinated to the Grand
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