Essay On Autonomic Nervous System

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Autonomic nervous system
The regulation of activities of cardiac and smooth muscles are carried out by autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the higher levels of the brain with cerebral cortex and functions of visceral organs. The higher levels of the brain send impulses to the hypothalamus to coordinate the activity of visceral organs. The nerve fibers of hypothalamus send impulses to regulate the activities related with respiration, heart rate, circulation and digestion. The lower center with nerve cells sends impulses to the brain and spinal cord which contain cranial and spinal nerves to carry out the respective action. A synapse is created between the structures which the ganglia of the multipolar neuron lay outside the central nervous system. In pre ganglionic fibers the axon passes to the ganglion cells in the central nervous system. Post ganglionic cells are axons of the ganglion cells. The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system and enteric nervous system.
Enteric nervous system
The intrinsic nervous system or the enteric nervous system controls the digestive processes of secretion, absorption and the supply of blood. The enteric nervous system is controlled by the neurons and plexuses found in the lining of the digestive track
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The preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies are found in the lateral part of the gray matter region of the thoracic to lumber areas in the spinal cord. Preganglionic fibers are short nerve fibers arising from the vertebral column ends in the sympathetic ganglia behind the peritoneum or pleura. The postganglionic fibers arise in the effectors, spread throughout the body. But not in the central nervous system. Sympathetic nerves with blood vessels provide adequate blood supply to the thoracic ganglia, eyes, heart, lungs and abdominal

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