The two- gap model explains three processes that countries must pass through to develop. These are the absorptive capacity, savings and trade constraint stages. The absorptive capacity stage is characterized as the primitive stage where the country lacks technical knowledge necessary. Foreign aid in the form of technical aid should be provided to recipient countries to help them in their development effort. At the savings constraint stage, low wages make it difficult for people to meet their basic needs let alone to save.
Drivers for collaboration Power/Resource balances: the imbalances of power between stakeholders are usually a noticeable problem in collaborative governance (Gray, 1989; Short &Winter, 1999; Susskind &Cruikshank, 1987; Tett, Crowther, & O’Hara, 2003; Warner, 2006). If some stakeholders do not have the capacity, competence, condition, or resources to participate in an equal position with other stakeholders, the collaborative governance process will be prone to manipulation by stronger actors. Therefore, if there are remarkable power/resource imbalances between stakeholders, such that influential stakeholders cannot participate in a meaningful way, then effective collaborative governance requires a dedication to a positive strategy of empowerment
Moreover, it used to establish hypotheses to link each construct. The concept of the dynamic capability theory views the firm as unique resources capabilities that, if employed in distinctive ways, can create competitive advantage. Dynamic capabilities can be defined as ‘the ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure internal and external competencies to address rapidly-changing environments. The concept of dynamic capabilities arose from a key shortcoming of the resource-based view of the firm. The RBV has been criticized for ignoring factors surrounding resources, instead assuming that they simply “exist”.
Most Common Ethical Issues: 1) Employment practices Sometimes work conditions in a host nation are clearly inferior to those in a multinational’s home nation. In this case, companies must decide which standards should be applied - standards of the home nation, host nation, or something in
Inquiry should be based upon scientific observation (as opposed to philosophical speculation), and therefore on empirical inquiry. It is worth having a brief overview of critical inquiry because it offers quite a different perspective to positivism and interpretivist. This critical form of research is a meta-process of investigation, which questions currently held values and assumptions and challenges conventional social structures. Epistemology The epistemology used for finding the causes of job insecurity in social sector is objectivist because it relies on realties and being as a realist and this problem is facing worldwide especially in multinational companies and also the researchers used the concept of objectivist. The given example explain objectivist in better way.
• They must understand the principles of preventive diplomacy and international peace operations. • And they must be comfortable with the latest technologies, which will be changing in ways we cannot even imagine today. And yes, the last part was so important indeed, because the diplomats required to mastering on using and operating a recent of every kind of technologies and information. Our world is changing, and that we are asking more of the people we are recruiting, our organization will also have to change. That change will require learning to leverage the information revolution to our advantage.
Knowledge process outsourcing What is KPO? Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) is a form of outsourcing in which companies outsource the relatively high-level task involving knowledge or core function to an outside organization or a different group in a different geographic location. These task are usually more “specialized and knowledge based which are related to research and development, Capital and insurance market services, legal services, biotechnology, animation and design etc.” (What is KPO?, 2007) Companies resorting to KPO are mainly those who have a shortage of skilled professionals in a particular area of work or to reduce any costs incurred. KPO business entities provide domain-based processes, advanced analytical skills, technical
But it is only a necessary but not sufficient condition for development. Human capital, economic institutions, social norms are also important for development (DRÈZE, 2015). The growth is always confused to development and it has to be understood that growth is not same as development. Development includes economic growth along with improvement in quality of life of the developed and expansion freedoms. This was the major complexity that was underlying in all the attempts made in history to conceptualize development.
Technological Perspective From the technological perspective, Florence Jaumotte, Subir Lall and Chris Papageorgiou (2008, pp. 8~9) asserts there is ‘Skills Gap’ between advanced countries and the Third world. ‘Skills Gap’ widen gap between advanced technology countries and the Third world which does not have enough basements or sources to apply advanced technology, for example, the internet. This is a technological view point of globalisation. This can be a supporting idea for the research.
According to Cokpekin and Knudsen (2012), the relationship between creativity and innovation is contingent upon innovation type. Given this situation, some scholars advocate a stronger conceptual differentiation between creativity and innovation (e.g., Paulus, 2002; Sohn & Jung, 2010; Cokpekin and Knudsen, 2012). Accordingly, and considering that the minimum requirements needed to establish a theory include 1) identification of the constructs describing a phenomenon and 2) specification of relationships between the constructs (e.g. Doty and Glick, 1994), the objective of this paper is to map and discuss theories on the association between creativity and innovation for different types of innovation (e.g. product and process), in terms of 1) the similarities and differences and 2) the relationships between these constructs.