Biomass Research Paper

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1. Definition of biomass:
Biomass is simply a sustainable source of energy that converts plant and animal materials waste into energy (Yokoyama 112).
Why is biomass a sustainable source of energy?
Biomass is a sustainable source of energy because animals will always produce waste and plants will always have crops "Biomass Energy Resources ".

2. Sources of Biomass:
As the researcher mentioned before, Biomass can be derived from either plant based materials waste or animal based materials waste.
But first how do plants and animals store energy? Where does the energy come from?
Basically, plants store energy by the process of photosynthesis (when plants absorb energy from the sun). Energy is released as heat when biomass is burned. There are
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Plants store carbon dioxide in them. In order to get it we need to either burn plants or break them down by special micro-organisms.
If plants are burned, the Carbon dioxide returns back to the air. However, if plants were broken down by micro-organisms, they either release carbon dioxide or methane gas. These two processes are called the carbon cycle "Biomass Energy Resources ".

2.b What are the types of plants used in Biomass?
Many types of plants can be used in biomass. There are two main approaches to convert plants to energy: we can either grow plants for especially for energy uses, or using the waste of plants that are used for other things like making paper.
Energy crops:
The first type of plants used in Biomass is energy crops. This type includes plants that are grown in huge amounts. The type of energy crop used at present for energy purposes is corn. In the upcoming years, there will hopefully be more types.
Short-Rotation Woody Crops:
This term refers to the trees that grow back by themselves after being cut off. Maple, Black locust, willow and sycamore are all examples of crops that regrow after being harvest (Seishu
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Biomass Energy Methods:
There are five biomass energy methods:
1- Direct combustion: This method refers to the burning of wood scarps and grasses.
2- Chemical conversion: biodiesel is a liquid fuel that can be used in engines instead of gasoline and has less pollution. We can get biodiesel from converting canola oils and soybean using a certain type of chemical during the process of chemical conversion.
3- Pyrolysis: The third method refers to heating biomass in order to get useful gases such as hydrogen and methane. Hydrogen is very important in producing water. On the other hand, methane is mainly used in heating buildings and producing electricity.
4- Anaerobic digestion: This process involves using certain organic compounds such as municipal bio-solids like sewage and animal wastes in creating methane.
5- Fermentation: This is the last method. It involves fermenting and distilling cellulose (an organic compound used in creating paper) and carbohydrates from a trees, grasses and corn. Cellulose and carbohydrates can be turned into energy.
A study by the Environmental media service shows that trees give 4-5 times more energy than they take to grow. Another study by the energy balance of corn ethanol shows that corn give 34% more energy than it requires in producing it
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