The conventional methods are expensive and are not very effective. Thus bioremediation is the need of the hour. Bioremediation uses living organisms to degrade or remove the pollutants from a contaminated site. It is defined as “Treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances” (EPA). The environment has the inbuilt tendency to degrade the waste which is known as intrinsic bioremediation.
Therefore, worldwide there is a continuous interest in development of new, effective and inexpensive techniques for the removal of pollutants. Among them bioremediation have been broadly studied. Bioremediation involves “clean-up of pollution from air, surface water, groundwater and soil, using biological processes,
Moreover the potential of these methods is very limited and they can be applied only to small areas. 1.PHYTOREMEDIATION Phytoremediation refers to the methods and techniques by which living plants are used to clean up the environment which includes the air, soil and water which may be contaminated with
Soil microorganisms are effective in releasing P from organic and inorganic pools of total soil P through mineralization and solubilization. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids. Among the organic acids produced, gluconic, formic acid, 2-ketogluconic, citric, oxalic, lactic, isovaleric, succinic, glycolic and acetic acids produced from P- solubilizing bacteria. Production of organic acids results in the lowering of pH in the surroundings and many reports suggests a positive correlation between lowering of pH and mineral phosphate solubilization.
In brief, bioremediation is the process of decontaminating and detoxifying soil and water. As mentioned earlier, one of the prime characteristics of pseudomonas is that it can break complex compounds like hydrocrarbons. This is applied in bioremediation processes whereby complex compounds in the soil are broken down into gasses like carbon dioxide or into less soluble compounds (Wasi, Tabrez & Ahmad, 2013). This area has been researched a lot because it has a lot of potential and addresses global environmental concerns. The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain are quite effective in the bioremediation of toxicants like phenols, pesticides and heavy metals.
Phytosequestration"- Phytosequestration, also called phytostabilization, is a process within the root zone that limits the migration of metals through complexation, precipitation or change to less hazardous state. It generally alters the chemical and microbial composition of the soil. The transfer of pollutants between the plant cells is being facilitated by transport proteins, cells contain vacuole that acts as storage for waste in the plant. These vacuoles of root cells store contaminants that prevent any further translocation to the xylem. Phytosequestration does not need harvesting and disposal of plant, as the pollutants are absorbed by the soil; however, assessment of the system is important to validate that translocation of pollutants
Other source can include unsafe or excess application of pesticides, fungicides and fertilisers (Zhen-Guo et al., 2002). Additional potential sources of heavy metals include irrigation water contaminated by sewage and industrial effluent leading to contaminated soils and vegetables (Bridge
1. Introduction The pollution of surface water has brought so much frustration over the past years nationally and globally. Surface water pollution occurs when the quality of water degrade to an extent that it becomes uneasy to use due to the entering of harmful substances into the water systems. When surface water is polluted the environment is affected as a whole. Aquatic species such as plants and fish are threatened by poor water conditions (Botkin, D.B., 2014).
Some of the degradations' compounds they produce can also directly alter the material with which they are in contact, making the microorganisms influence on the materials' decay more complicated. This is why there are different kind of biodegradation, a first separation could be direct and indirect biodeterioration. Direct process means that the microbe is altering chemically or mechanically the material by itself. An indirect one refers to an alteration due to compounds produce by a microorganism during its metabolic cycle. Both indirect and direct are usually happening at the same time co-enhancing themselves the object's
get mixed in water and if the toxic elements are in large quantity then optimal concentration then it will pollute water. 1.3.6. Thermal sources of water pollution: Thermal pollution is generated by power plants. Industrial sources such as pulp and paper mills, petroleum refineries, chemical plants. Warm water from these industries domestic areas directly discharged into the rivers, lakes and other water bodies.