Masonry arch bridges use a quantity of fill material above the arch to increase the dead-weight on the bridge and prevent tension from occurring in the arch ring as loads move across the bridge. Other materials that were used to build this type of bridge were unreinforced concrete and brick. When masonry is used the angles of the faces are cut to minimize shear forces. Where random masonry (uncut and unprepared stones) is used they are mortared together and the mortar is allowed to set before the falsework is removed. Traditional masonry arches are generally durable, and somewhat resistant to settlement or undermining.
• On the suspension bridge, a large cable hangs between two towers, and is fixed at each end to the anchors in the ground or to a massive structure. • These cables form the main bearing structure of the bridge deck. Before installing the cover, the cables are subjected to voltage only by their own weight. • The smaller cables or bars are suspended from the main cable and are used to support the load of the bridge deck, which rises in sections and attaches to the suspension cables. • The tension in the cables must be transferred to the ground by the anchors, which are sometimes difficult to construct due to poor soil conditions.
These materials have been used for both structural and appearance purposes. That is to say, they work to bear load and give the building a facade. Dry walls and wooden panelling have also been used inside. Steel beams are also easily identifiable supporting the stair cases made of concrete. The building itself is constructed with a wide array of structural elements.
From the first truss bridge, engineers experimented with different forms of truss bridges trying to find better shape and the one that will suit them for the particular problems. Because of that we have today many forms of truss bridges. Truss bridge can have deck (roadbed) on top (deck truss), in the middle (through truss), or at the bottom of the truss. If the sides of the truss extend above the roadbed but are not connected, it is called a pony truss or half-through truss. The common concept design used in a truss bridges are Basic Warren Truss Bridge Basic Pratt Truss Bridge , Howe Truss Bridge & K-Truss Bridge .
I will choose the Cantilever bridge witch connect block c with the new building. Cantilever bridge is an excellent bridge structure, since this structure only required the one side of each cantilever to support without the bridge Pier, it allows the vehicle or pedestrian over through from under the bridge, and does not affect the traffic on first floor. The anchor arms can be directly attached to the two building, without the need for artificial support. Since most bridges contain multiple cantilever spans, we can use precast component to reduces the time required. The most important part is these bridges can tolerate the effects of thermal expansion and ground movement better than others.
Our first bridge held a weight of 3.45 kilograms When the bridge broke the leg supporting the bridge broke because the applied force was stronger than the normal force the legs of the bridge could no longer withstand the weight. What we did to hopefully help keep our bridge from breaking again and be able to hold more weight is we made the base of the bridge wider, we made the legs that support the bridge shorter and added more zig-zags to add more reinforcement to the bridge. The first thing we wanted to do was change how wide the base of the bridge was. The bridge base originally had a width of 4 centimeters and we decided to change it so that it was 5 centimeters wide to help it stand better and hold more weight because the first bridge we built kept falling over. We changed this because the bridge kept falling over and the base was bending out due to the sand being emptied into the bucket The base was then sliding up against the table as more weight was added to the bridge.
Continuous beams are those that rest over two or more supports, thereby having one or more redundant support reactions. A continuous beam provides resistance to bending when a load is applied to it . Five experiments were carried out on the same specimen, with spring balances measuring the reaction
Planks Planks are flat, rectangular and elongated timber with parallel faces. They are typically made from solid-sawn timber, though some newer materials include metal and manufactured or engineered wood. Planks are crucial in the construction of houses, buildings, bridges and other architectural structures. They are used as temporary platforms on supported scaffolds, by lapping ends over bearers. Planks also serve as supporting material for shelves and household fixtures.
Machines used in construction 4. Common equipments 5. Some history about Bridges 6. Some famous bridges So attempt was made to understand these concepts through this project. Though the topic is very vast, so all minor facts and points are not possible to be covered.
Reinforced concrete is stronger than most of the other materials used in the construction industry. Apart from providing great strength it also has good tension capabilities. The materials have a longer lifespan and the maintenance cost is also lesser. For constructing larger structures such as dams reinforced concrete is very economical and can save lots of money for the builder. They can take any shape and is used in making structural components before casting.