The substance undergoes a process called supercritical drying where the liquid is removed from the gel leaving the linked silica network without causing the material to collapse. As aerogel is made up of 95% to 99% air, it is very porous. Its pores are exceptionally minuscule preventing air particles from colliding with another and stopping gas phase conduction, and with that heat energy loss. To increase aerogel insulations effectiveness more materials are added, such as carbon. Aerogel insulation significantly reduces convection, conduction and radiation, which are the three procedures of heat transfer ("Low Energy House - What is Aerogel Insulation?").
Moorjani & Asadi  performed a study to investigate the effect of using different types of glazing on optimized window dimensions and layout in an office room. They showed that using the optimal dimensions for the windows and highly insulated windows can significantly reduce the energy demands for the simulated model. For the effect of the infiltration rate of the energy consumption in the buildings, Emmerich & Persily  have performed a study to estimate the energy use in commercial buildings due
a sustainable building maximizes daylighting, has a good ventilation and moisture control.It also optimizes acoustic performance. 6. Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Designers can specify materials and systems that simplify and reduce maintenance requirements; require less water, energy, and toxic chemicals / cleaners to maintain; and are cost-effective and reduce life-cycle costs. Energy conservation in building is very important and best way to decrease the energy consumption is using solar energy and creating passive building design.Buildings with passive solar building designs use the sun’s energy for free heating, cooling and daylighting. This decreases energy consumption and gives a comfortable environment inside.
Air conditioning means, the air conditioning for the maintenance of the specific conditions of temperature, humidity (moisture in the air) and the level of dust inside a closed space. The conditions that remain are dictated by the need for the conditioned space is intended. The air conditioning system removes heat leaking into the structure from the outside and deposits it outside the structure where it came from. A basic air conditioning system consists of three main components: • Compressor: compresses the low pressure refrigerant (low temperature) to high pressure (high temperature). This conversion increases the boiling point to higher temperature levels, which facilitates the removal of heat brought by the outside air.
An example of this was the two 6 storey reinforced concrete buildings in the 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake discussed above. Components of a building that are sensitive to floor accelerations in an earthquake include the mechanical and electrical equipment, the contents, the manufacturing processes, elevators, sprinkler systems and ceiling and lights. The order of magnitude reduction in floor accelerations provided by base isolation greatly enhances the safety of all of these components of a
So, which home improvement project is best for you and which are the projects you should avoid? One project that is worth investing in is the windows replacement project. Replacing your existing windows with hurricane resistant impact windows, will not only increase the value of your home but will also protect you and your family from natural
(Luo, 2009) Daylighting Systems without shading are used to pass on daylight to areas away from the window or opening and Daylighting Systems with shading are systems that rely on diffuse skylight and reject it or sends the direct sunlight to the ceiling or to locations above the eye level. The Daylighting strategies depend on the availability of the natural light and are also affected by the climate and seasons. Daylighting strategies designed for cloudy conditions aim to distribute the light to the interior spaces when the sun is not present. (Johnsen & Watkins, n.d.) Tregenza and Wilson (2011) summarized the Daylighting strategy into 3 aims:  to create a diffuse field of light outdoors;  to reflect light upwards on to the ceiling of the rooms; and  to avoid bright surfaces near the horizontal line of view. (p.88) In relation to this, Baker and Steemers (2002) said that the position, shape, and size of the windows in a room have a strong influence and effect on the distribution and level of daylight.
Another issue I had with the experiment was that the results in the second test the modification did not improve the experiment at all. Recommendations What recommendations/ modifications would improve the design of the solar cooker? In further recommendation I would take away the black plastic bag due to the fact that it did not improve with the modification that was added to solar cooker. I believe that the modification did not improve because the transmission of heat was being stoped. Due to the material for the black plastic bag being too thick for the absorption of heat to heat the water.
Although it is environmentally friendly which produces less carbon emissions, it has slight unfavorable effects on the human health. Due to the high insulation of houses which is the consequences less ventilation and filtration of air, where chemicals have no where to go, it collects inside the house; therefore, it consequently may result on various disease (Campaign for the accountability of American bases, 2014). According to the EPA (2011), indoor air is approximately three to seven times polluted than outdoor air. High insulation of houses may result in a various diseases. Perhaps, people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, and approximately 60 percent of time at home; a mother with infant spend more time as well (EPA, 2011).