When it is subjected to linear acceleration, the casing moves off immediately leaving behind the mass and spring stretches with a force that corresponds to the acceleration. The distance the spring stretches can be used to measure the force and the acceleration in the variety of different ways. Fig.2.1 (a) Mechanical
Because the forces on the tip change as the tip-surface separation changes, the resonant frequency of the cantilever is dependent on this separation. In tapping mode lateral forces almost eliminated and the force is low so there is very less damage to soft smaples. But the problem is low scan rate as compare to contact mode. Non- Contact
220.127.116.11 Edge dislocation An edge dislocation moves in response to a shear stress applied in a direction perpendicular to its line; Figure - 1.4: Schematics of Edge dislocation The tendency by which the plastic deformation is induced via dislocation motion is known as slip. The dislocation line propagates along the crystallographic plane which is termed as slip plane (Figure -1.4). Movement of dislocation leads to the permanent plastic deformation, in response to applied shear stresses. 18.104.22.168 Screw dislocation The motion of a screw dislocation in response to the applied shear stress is shown in Figure 1.5; the direction of movement is perpendicular to the stress direction. For an edge, motion is parallel to the shear stress.
What is ball bearings? Ball bearings are used to provide smooth, low friction movement in rotating applications. Ball bearings can provide high performance and long life to transmit load from ball to inner race. Because of the spherical shape of the sphere, contact between the inner ring race and the outer race is minimized and it can rotate smoothly. A disadvantage of ball bearings is that if too much pressure is exerted on the outer ring, the ball will flatten over time leading to the final breakage.
Let the buckling deformation at a section distant x from the end B be y. The critical force depends on: - Length of column - Cross-section (second moment of surface area) - Material property (Young’s modulus, in case of elastic material - Boundary condition (The boundary conditions determine the mode of bending and the distance between inflection points on the deflected column. The closer together the inflection points are, the higher the resulting capacity of the column.) Thus the Euler buckling analysis for a " straight" strut, will
Hooke’s law may also be expressed in terms of stress and strain. Stress is the force on unit areas within a material that develops as a result of the externally applied force. Strain is the relative deformation produced by stress. However, Hooke’s law is only valid until the elastic limit is
Fn acts upwards, perpendicular to the track, in the same direction as centripetal force. Because Fg acts opposing the normal force, and is always constant, the magnitude of Fn must be large to compensate, providing the necessary Fc. Adversely, at the top of the loop, both Fn and Fg act downwards. This allows for Fn to be smaller at the top, as it works in conjunction to Fg to provide the Fc.
The towline force and the drag and thruster forces cause a heeling moment which has to be counteracted by the transverse stability moment of the tug. The transverse stability moment consists of two forces in opposite direction: the downward vertical acting weight force and the upward vertical acting buoyancy force. The lever of this moment is called GZ (Figure 3). Traditional tug criteria should provide for sufficnet stability to prevent capsize in case of girting when the towline exerts maximum pull perpendicularly to the vessel’s centerline. Such situation can develop rapidly, and tugs should be designed with sufficient stability to survive such events.
3. Virtual model of the actuating shafts. The shafts that are delivering the motion, unitive with the actuators shafts and using the command unit, are realizing a motion of rotation that encloses the characteristics of the actuators(rotative speed, torque, etc). Moreover, the shafts have at the opposite part a threaded sector that on which is mounted the screw joint that is realizing the motion of translation. Each screw joint is unitive with one actuating cable of the poly-articulated unit.
Camber angle 2. Caster angle 3. Toe angle Camber angle: Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle with the vertical line Positive camber: installing positive camber in a vehicle increases the controlling stability of a vehicle. Negative camber: installing negative camber in a vehicle increases the straight line stability of a vehicle and also decreases the steering effort. We are using a camber angle of 20 on front wheels and no camber angle on rear wheels.