He also found that the polarities of the solvents were important when during the separation to ensure that the solutes which were non-polar and polar can be separated efficiently. HPLC is the acronym of High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The creation of HPLC is actually
The speed of movement of ions through the ion chromatograph columns depends not only on the diameter of the column but basically on the affinity of the ion to the specific resin or elute selected, the size of the interacting molecules and also the resultant distance between them based on the degree of attraction and repulsion. The ions with strong affinity for resin pass faster through the eluent as compared to the ions which have weaker affinity, which take more time to be
However, different molecules will move at quite different and individual rates depending on the physical characteristics of the molecule and on experimental system used. The velocity of movement, ν, of a charged molecule in an electric field depends on variables described by Eq/ f • Nucleic acid molecules are size separated by the aid of an electric field where negatively charged molecules travel toward anode (positive) pole. The migration flow is resulted solely by the molecular weight where small weight molecules migrate faster than larger ones. In addition to size separation, nucleic acid fractionation using agarose gel electrophoresis can be an initial step for further purification of a band of interest. Extension of the technique includes expunging the desired “band” from a stained gel viewed with a UV transilluminator.
The only difference from normal phase is that the column now is modified in order to attach long hydrocarbon to it surface. When a polar solvent is used strong attractions between the polar solvent and polar molecules in mixture being passed through the silica. Polar molecules will spent most of the time moving with the solvent because there will not be as much as attraction between the hydrocarbon chains attached to silica and the polar molecules in the solution. About the non polar mixtures, because of the Van der Waals forces will tend to form attractions with hydrocarbon
4.Literature research: Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of high solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on two sides. There are 3 types of osmotic conditions that affect living cells, they are: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic states. These terms describe the osmotic state of the solution that surrounds a cell, not the solution inside the cell. Hypertonic conditions cause water to diffuse out of the cell, making the cell shrivel. Hypotonic conditions cause water to move into the cell swelling or bursting it.
The gel consists of a penetrable matrix through which molecules can travel when triggered by an electric current. Smaller molecules migrate through the gel more quickly and consequently travel further. Larger fragments that migrate slowly travel a shorter distance. The result is that the specific molecules are separated by size in electrophoresis. A short tandem repeat (STR) in DNA is a quantity of polymorphisms that occurs when a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the recurrent sequences are directly adjacent to each other.
Within the gel exist pores which the molecules must move through in order to reach the positively or negatively charged electrode. Molecules that are large in size will move at a slower rate than that of those smaller in size. Molecules with the same molecular weight may move at different rates as well. If one has a denser shape, it will move faster through the pores in the agarose. The rate at which a molecule moves is also based on its charge.
Long duration of heating will loosen the bond between central atom and ligands. Characteristic of acetone is to increase the formation of complex. There is error in the acetone provided thus causing the adding steps of acetone to dissolve all the complex formed in the experiment. Sodium acetate trihydrate, as a base in this experiment, causing acetylacetone to lose a proton to form acetylacetone anion, acac-. Manganese has wide range of oxidation state from +7 to -1, however, in aqueous solution, manganese with +2 oxidation state is most stable and common.
A0123942_Gel Electrophoresis Report Name: Lee Zixuan Process of Gel Electophoresis: Gel electrophoresis in this case involves the placement of both genomic and plasmid DNA inside the wells of the agarose gel, together with a gel loading buffer. The agarose gel contains mini pores such that when an electric current is switched on, it would be able to separate the bigger segments of DNA bands from the smaller ones. As DNA is negatively charged due to the phosphate group, it would move towards the positive electrode. Smaller molecules of DNA would be able to move faster than the bigger molecules of DNA. Upon completion, the separated fragments of DNA can be visualized under UV light and the distinct bands could be seen.
Varius types of kinetic substrate consumption and inhibition models have been used to explain the dynamics of microbial growth on different compounds for example Phenol, Toluene, Benzene and p-cresol (16, 32, 34). To predict the kinetics of microbial at substrate adaptation conditions, an effort was made to fit the kinetic rate data to proper kinetic models. In these models, Value of Ks the affinity of microbes to substrate and Ki values indicate the sensitiveness of the culture to substrate inhibition. Larger Ki value means that the culture is less sensitive to substrate inhibition (16,35). From the Table 6, the best fit was achieved using Tessier and Haldane respectively.
The membrane structure is determined by the lipid bilayer, and proteins determine the membrane functions. The membrane has a lipid bilayer containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. This bilayer blocks hydrophilic substances from passing while still allowing water diffusion. This allows oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, both lipid-soluble molecules, to diffuse through the bilayer easily. Water molecules, due to their small size,
The purpose of stacking gel is to make sure all the proteins start separating at approximately the same time. The pore size is larger so that it is easier for large protein to move in order to catch up with the smaller protein. As heating, SDS denature the proteins, the proteins are loaded onto the wells on the stacking gel. The denatured proteins have a uniform mass to negative charge ratio. Since the current run from negative (top) to positive (bottom), the proteins move toward the bottom.
Collecting small fractions is essential in column chromatography because they can be combined together; large fractions can lead to multiple compounds in a specific fraction. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate the three components of Excedrin using column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine when each of the components had been fully eluted from the column. If there was an overlap in fractions between two components, liquid- liquid extraction was done to separate them. The compounds were characterized via NMR instrumentation and the percent recovery for each compound was calculated to determine whether the isolation was
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.