Drug Kardexes were gathered and audited under certain criteria in order to identify potential risk areas in drug prescribing and administration, and also to provide ways in which these risks can be reduced or eliminated and reinforce drug management policies’ and guidelines. NICE (2002) audit cycle will be applied to this assignment to provide an acceptable framework (Appendix 1). Step 1: Preparing for Audit. The first step in the audit process is to identify which type of audit is to be carried out. In this case the concurrent review was chosen.
Pharmacovigiliance is defined by the World Health Organisation as “the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem” . In other words, pharmacovigilance can be simply defined as drug safety. Adverse reactions can be explained as when medicines affect the body in a harmful and unintended manner. Prior to obtaining marketing authorisation for a new drug, the drug has to be tested and the corresponding data has to be gathered. These tests are known as clinical trials, and the relevant regulatory bodies must use this data to decide whether the drugs benefits outweigh the associated risks.
This is an interesting study for the journal since it addresses with a novel approach the nursing diagnoses of surveillance in cases of patients suffering from cardiac arrest. There are few published studies dealing with this issue and, even less, using a non-NANDA-I taxonomy. The authors introduce the ATIC terminology that seems to have a wide range of adequate risk diagnoses to improve the nursing surveillance interventions planning for patients with severe health status in the hospital setting. Therefore, we believe that the research approaching is appropriate and pertinent to advance in these issues´ knowledge. Introduction: page 2, lines 48: the sentence ending with "... cardiac arrest is predictable" should be accompanied by its bibliographic
Pharmocovigilance Pharmocovigilance as define by the oxford dictionary is "the practice of monitoring the effects of medical drugs after they have been licensed for use especially in order to identify and evaluate previously unreported adverse reactions". In the EU all medicine is strictly analysed and tested for their quality , efficacy and safety before it is authorised for market. Even as these drugs are on the market they are continuously monitored to ensure any particulate which could affect the safety of the drug is identified and assessed and the necessary measures are taken .The Pharmocovigilance legislation was put into place to reduce the risks and increase the benefit of medicine and was "developed based on the observation that adverse drug reactions caused roughly 197,000 deaths in the EU". Since 1995 there have not been any major changes in the EU regulations of human medicine until the new Pharmocovigilance legislation came into effect during the month of July 2012. The aims of the Pharmocovigilance Legislation is to lessen the count of adverse drug reactions in the EU, through the following: • Compiling and maintain data on the safety of medicines • Analyzing data to identify the ADR's • Assessing the data to determine safety issues • Following effective regulatory action to deliver
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at timed intervals in order to maintain a relatively constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. It is not necessary to use therapeutic drug monitoring for all the of medications, and it is used mainly for monitoring drugs with some narrow therapeutic ranges, drugs with marked variability in pharmacokinetic, medications with target concentrations which are difficult to monitor, and drugs that are known to cause therapeutic and adverse effects. The process of therapeutic drug monitoring is based on the assumption that there is a specific relationship between dose and plasma or blood drug concentration, and between concentration and therapeutic effects. Therapeutic drug
Drugs Abuse Introduction In this Digital Age, we have undoubtedly moved into an era where the fields of medical research play one of the most important roles in maintaining the balance of the world today. Mankind had successfully created a huge number of drugs to aid in medicinal fields. A drug is a chemical that influences biological function other than providing nutrition or dehydration which may come from plants and laboratories (Kleiman, Caulkins & Hawken, 2011) However, problems arise when these drugs are intentionally abused to satisfy unjust desires. A drug’s effect can be benign or harmful, often depending on the dose. According to Simon Wills (2005), whether we approve of drug abuse wholly, selectively or not at all, it has been in
A similar definition exists in the text “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” (Orange Book) published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (3). While both the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and the FDA recognize the concept that pharmaceutical alternatives may be shown to be bioequivalent, the Orange Book (3) clearly states that only therapeutic equivalents that are pharmaceutical equivalents can be considered substitutable, whereas the EMEA states that either pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives may be considered as therapeutic equivalents provided that the excipients contained in the formulation do not impact on the safety and efficacy profile of the dosage form (2). Pharmaceutical equivalents are defined in the Orange Book (3) as drug products that contain the same active ingredient(s), are of the same dosage form, route of administration and are identical in strength or
Recently, researchers did an experiment which include the screening of chemical substance that will treat the disease and also the information from the genomic used to create a drugs for people who have specific genetic data. In developmental process, there were some drugs that were left before and pharmacogenomics used these drugs back. For example, Gencaro is an improvement of β-blocker drug bucindolol which prohibited by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) because of this substance can lead to heart failure. But after several tests, Gencaro shows that the drugs work effectively in heart function in two different
The same mind-body power that can heal you, can also harm you; this is where the Nocebo effect takes place. The basis behind these two events is called the “meaning response” and it alludes to the brain’s power to lead to effects in reaction to whatever it considers the truth or, positive or negative. If the substance is seen as beneficial it can heal, but if it’s considered as damaging, it is more likely to produce negative effects. For example, when patients in double-blinded clinical tests are warned about the side effects they may encounter if they’re given the real drug, approximately 25% experience sometimes severe reactions, even when they’re only taking a placebo, such as sugar pills. Some of these symptoms include weakness, puking, lack of muscular strength, colds, ringing in the ears, confusion with their taste recognition, memory loss or disorder, and other symptoms that should not result from these fake medications.
The literature search on medication adherence in HF patients was done by using common words “medication adherence,” “non- adherence,” “compliance,” “heart failure.” The pharmacist intervention literature search was conducted using the common key words “pharmacist,” “patient counselling” to evaluate any pharmacist intervention in the treatment of HF patients. The review also included studies that did not contain pharmacist intervention, instead of that improves medication adherence is