Macromolecules like carbohydrates and proteins are organic molecules that support life. Enzymes are needed to break carbohydrates down into simpler components that can easily be used for energy. However, enzymes are very specific and only react to certain substrates, as shown by part A of this lab, where glucose trinder was exposed to glucose, galactose, mannose, and lactose, but only reacted with glucose. To show how pH can have an effect on enzymatic reactions, lactose was exposed to lactase at different pH 's, the data showed that the reactions occurred more easily at the more neutral pH 's (closer to a pH of 7). Background: Macromolecules are organic molecules that are necessary for life, these molecules include nuclei acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Osmosis is a process where the solvent molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until it reaches equilibrium. These solvent molecules, typically water, move freely. Carbon dioxide is able to move across the cell membrane through a process called simple diffusion. This works in a similar manner, carbon dioxide is able to move freely across the cell membrane from low to high concentration. When oxygen is breathed in, the red blood cells in the lungs have a low concentration of oxygen and a high concentration of carbon dioxide.
This organelle can be found both on the rough ER and free in cytoplasm, but the proteins produced in each place have different functions; proteins produced in the cytoplasm are typically used within the cell while proteins produced by the rough ER are usually exported outside the cell. The ribosomes themselves are produced in nucleolus and cells that need a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes . With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that helps move organelles inside the cell, therefore microtubules are attributed with the function of intracellular movement . In addition to the cytoskeleton, microtubules also make up the cilia and flagella of the cell.
When the vital stain is added into the slide containing water, the process of oxidation will take longer. The vital stain into the cell is colored because it is an oxidizing agent and when it is added into the slide that contains sucrose, it will act as an electron acceptor and therefore becomes reduced and colorless on a faster rate. This process occurs more slowly in the cell that contains water because there is not a great amount of glucose present to be oxidized; therefore, the process of fading the color takes longer. After the experiment is done, it can be stated that the previously raised hypothesis is supported by the results obtained and at the same time the prediction made is supported when the Janus Green stain turned from blue to colorless at a faster rate when glucose was present than the process with
2.7.3 Membrane fluidity Membrane fluidity, or known as the reciprocal of viscosity, was used to describe the extent of disorder and the molecular motion within the lipid bilayer (Cossins, 1994; Murata & Los, 1997). Unsaturated membrane lipids are the major factor that affect the fluidity of membrane lipids (Murata & Los, 1997). A decrease in temperature leads to a decrease in membrane fluidity, which will further trigger the expression of the genes for fatty acid desaturases. These enzymes play a role to introduce double bonds into the fatty acyl chains of membrane lipids to counterbalance the decrease in membrane fluidity. As a result, the physical properties of the membrane can be restored to their optimal state, which will have a balanced maintenance of the ion gradients across the membranes, and the restoration of the functions of membrane associated enzymes.
Its role is to act as a medium in the cell. The cytoplasm has a large amount of organelles also known as little organs. Large protein molecules called enzymes are found in both the cytoplasm and in the organelles. Enzymes carry out many chemical reactions in order to create energy, they also transform raw materials into useful substances, or break down old proteins to be recycled. The cytosol in a cell does more than just suspend the organelles.
The average equivalent mass for the acid is 135g/mol H+. 3. The answer obtained in Question #2 is the equivalent mass of the acid rather than the molar mass because the acid could be polyprotic, which would mean the equivalent mass is different from the molar mass since it is depending on moles of H+ per molecule, and there could be multiple moles of H+ ions in one mole of a molecule. 4. The KHP and the acid samples must be dried, because there would still be extra water which would skew the molarity.
Arsenate wastes energy by the uncoupling phosphotransfer reaction so its very POISONOUS. However, glycolysis still proceeds. Arsenate can then also inhibit the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, blocking the Krebs cycle and therefore resulting in further loss of ATP.
This was controlled by adding a sufficient amount of distilled water to each condition, so the volume stays consistent. The temperature must be controlled because it can affect the rate of reaction, if the temperature increases then the rate of reaction would also increase. To make sure that the temperature is consistent in each condition, this experiment was conducted in one period of time in the same room. Lastly, the size of the beaker needs to be the same because reactions in smaller beakers may occur more quickly than those in bigger beakers because there is more pressure. Therefore, when doing this experiment, the sizes of the beakers were the same.
Firstly, it influences cholesterol’s solubility because of its polarity. Since the hydroxyl group is polar, it allows this portion of the molecule’s structure to be able to dissolve in water, causing cholesterol to be an alcohol. Overall, the molecule is amphiphilic because the hydroxyl group allows cholesterol to be hydrophilic, and the presence of its other structural features causes it to be hydrophobic. Secondly, the hydroxyl group influences cholesterol’s reactivity because it’s what causes the molecule to be very reactive, since the hydrocarbon tail and hydrocarbon rings are not as reactive. Thirdly, the hydroxyl group influences the cholesterol’s physical shape because its presence makes cholesterol a steroid alcohol.