The central nervous system: The brain and the spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS). The brain controls the body functions by sending and receiving messages through nerves. It is also aids in thought processing. 2. The peripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that branch out from the spinal cord and brain and spread out throughout the body form the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The Nervous System is the control center and one of the most important systems in the human body. The Nervous System is comprised of two parts: The Central and the Peripheral Nervous Systems, which divide into smaller sections. (“Nervous System, sciencedaily.com”) Each part of the Nervous System has jobs that keep humans alive and well. Every single movement that bodies make, millions of neurons fire off signals up to 268 miles per hour to indicate to the brain that something happened! (“15 Fascinating Facts You Didn’t Know About Your Brain, safelaunch.org”) It is so vital to human life that almost nothing can survive without it.
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL When the neuron is not sending a signal at rest the membrane potential called as resting membrane potential. In this stage, permeability of K+ much greater than Na+ When a neuron is at rest, the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside. Although the concentrations of the different ions endeavor to balance out on both sides of the membrane, they cannot because the cell membrane sanctions only some ions to pass through channels (ion channels). At rest, potassium ions (K+) can cross through the membrane facilely. Additionally at rest, chloride ions (Cl-) and sodium ions (Na+) have a more arduous time crossing.
Neurons transmit information to each other and to muscles, organs and glands. The nerve impulse is sent from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another neuron. The neuromuscular junction as labeled in Part A of this assignment, shows that there is a space between the axon of a neuron and the motor plate of the muscle cell. The two parts do not actually touch each other. When the football player’s brain sends a message to move during the game, the nerve impulse is sent from neuron to muscle cell.
According to Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., Nath, J., (2018), the ANS functions outside of our conscious awareness and makes routine adjustments in our body’s systems (Martini, Tallitsch, & Nath, 2018, p. 450). The autonomic nervous system helps maintain the homeostasis of our bodies by regulating body temperature and coordinating cardiovascular, repertory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions. Efferent axons innervate the visceral organs and the efferent nerve fibers and ganglia of the ANS organize in two systems or divisions. The sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is most active during times of stress, exertion, or emergency, also known as “flight or fight”.
These molecules are very light and volatile (easily evaporated) chemicals. They are dispersed in the air and make way to our nose. Behind your nose at the top of your nasal passageway, there are a small patch of neurons similar to the size of a postage stamp. Neurons are a special cell that sends nerve impulses. These neurons differ from other neurons as they are in the open.
The innermost lamina contain second order neurons that transmit to the locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and amygdala in the brain. Some lamina also contain inhibitory interneurons which prevent signals from transmitting further along the pathway. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a complex anatomical structure which needs further explanation, as this is where one of the mechanisms of chronic pain can develop. As mentioned, different types of nerve fibres synapse in the laminae. A-delta and C fibres synapse with second order neurons that transmit to the thalamus and then on to the somatosensory cortex, cingulate
Nerve cells create connections with one another so that the sensory information may reach the brain in the form of impulses. The growth of brain is very rapid during the initial years of life. As the neuron matures, it spreads out many branches, out of which the axons pass the information out and the dendrites receive in the information. Thus, the number of synaptic contacts between the neurons increases. At the time of birth, each neuron present in the cerebral cortex has about 2500 synapses.
“The nervous system can be divided into two parts: central and peripheral. The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all the nerves and fibers outside the nervous system (Jarvis, 2014, p. 633). How is the verbal response? Is it oriented or disoriented?