Closed-head injuries are caused mostly by car accidents, falls, acts of violence, and sports injuries. Closed-head injuries can be from mild injuries to traumatic brain injuries and can lead to severe brain damage or death. If symptoms of a head injury are seen after an accident, medical care is needed to diagnose and treat the injury. Without medical attention, injuries can progress and cause further brain damage, disability, or death.
Vascular Dementia can occur after a person has a stroke due to major blood vessels being blocked. iii. It also causes your thinking ability to decline by not allowing vital oxygen and nutrients to your brain cells. iv. In an article by Alzheimer’s Association it mentions that many experts who study this type like to call it “Vascular Cognitive Impairment” because it better explains the idea that your vascular thinking skills can change and it can either be small or serve.
This primary injury often initiates a cascade of secondary injury processes that evolve over the first few post injury days. 13 The secondary injuries can occur anytime after the impact and are potentially preventable.14 Prompt surgical intervention is necessary for good outcome. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning provides an objective assessment of the structural damage to the brain following traumatic brain injury.3 Acute CT is useful in identifying those individuals in whom deterioration is a result of a mass lesion and demonstrate extradural, subdural or intracranial haemorrhage, and midline shift, or traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage and ventricular abnormality. The ease of access and speed of data acquisition ensures that, where appropriate, patients benefit from early surgical management which has been shown to improve outcome. 15 2.2 EPIDEMIOLOGY Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of death and long-term disability in people younger than 40 years
They join together at the circle of willis at the base of the brain. Smaller arteries leave the circle and branch out to supply brain cells with oxygen and nutrients.Artery junction points may become weak causing a ballooning of the blood vessel wall to potentially form a small sac or aneurysm.Cerebral aneurysms are common but most are asymptomatic and are found incidentally at autopsy. Causes of Brain Aneurysm: Aneurysms have a variety of causes including high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, trauma, heredity and abnormal blood flow at the junction where arteries come together.There are other rare causes of aneurysms. Mycotic aneurysms are caused by infections of the artery wall. Tumors and trauma can also cause aneurysms to form.
These blood vessels usually nourish the retina. These blood vessels get blocked which causes irregular new blood vessels to form. Bleeding into the vitreous gel may occur due to these new blood vessels being weak. Retinal detachment may also occur because of these new blood vessels pulling on the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment in middle aged people and visual loss in older people.
The thrombin also promotes platelet aggregation. The fibrin stabilizes the platelet aggregates forming a platelet-fibrin thrombus. The formation of this thrombus on the device is bad as it can block the flow of blood to crucial organs including the heart and it can have fatal consequences. Thrombus formation on artificial devices is the result of both platelet activation and
Many people around the world are waiting on a list while they are suffering, and could be for years to follow because there aren’t enough donors for the number of recipients. Right now there are 115,429 people waiting for organs. We could be saving more lives then we are today by simply requiring organ donation. Although there are valid reasons people say no to it, but there are many more reasons to be a donor. Many people say no to organ donation because of the myths they hear.
It is not a genetic condition and the prevalence of cerebral palsy is on the increase mainly due to the increase in survival of very pre-term babies. According to the Unit 5 hand out, over 90% of all children affected by cerebral palsy are affected before or during birth (congenital). These causes could include: Congenital Causes: - Infection/ illness during
Primary head injury is present at the time of the trauma and is seen as a transient or an irreversible damage to the brain but secondary brain injury is usually as a result of accompanying peri-lesional oedema or raised intracranial pressure or parenchymal ischemia affecting varying parts of the brain. These secondary changes can cause tonsillar herniation especially in cases with raised intracranial pressure and may eventually culminate in the death of the patient. [14-15] The current trend of evaluation of patients with head injury includes Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear medicine. However, cranial CT has emerged the mainstay in the diagnostic work-up of patients with head injury, particularly in the initial assessment of the head injured due to its availability, short image acquisition time and its accuracy in the detection of skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage. [15 –
Accidents and illness - some illnesses has effect on child 's ability to learn, by taking some medications that has side effects can affects child 's learning process later in life. A frequent accidents like choking or falls can affect the brain development of the baby. 3. Genetic factors - when the genetic make-up
However, if intracranial air builds up and cannot be released or absorbed, it can put pressure on your brain (tension pneumocephalus). Tension pneumocephalus is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. CAUSES Neurosurgery is a common cause of pneumocephalus. Other causes include: • Back surgery. • Brain or skull injury.
Non-epileptic Seizures occurs with an injury to the head or an illness. Partial Seizures is a condition that causes repeated seizures. Generalized Seizures takes place on both sides of the brain. Anything that affects the body also may disturb the brain and lead to a seizure. For example, fever, brain defect present at birth, brain infection, stroke,
Infants that are born before thirty-seventh week (premature infants) of pregnancy are preterm and are at a much higher risk of complications that result from the brain damage. Medical literature consists of a variety of other factors that may contribute towards neural damage, for example, abnormal development of the brain, anoxia (absence of oxygen) in the near-drowning situation, excessive neonatal asphyxia (refers to the situations when oxygen is absent for long periods of time or the presence of excess carbon dioxide which can cause tissue damage in the body), choking abuse, intracranial bleeding (excess blood in the skill pushing against brain tissue causing severe trauma), pregnancy related complications, neurotrophic virus (viruses that are capable of entering nervous system and infecting brain tissue, brain trauma and various other infectious agents (Levitt, 2011, p. 3). It has been suggested that the neuronal descending pathway from the brain, rubrospinal tract (RST) which normally mediated voluntary movement control, imperfectly overcompensates when the corticospinal tract (CST), which is the primary motor descending pathway, is damaged or injured (Cahill-Rowley & Rose, 2013). It is often possible that the cause is not certain, and in most cases knowing the cause and history of the individual with cerebral palsy may not be helpful for the physician or the
However there are treatments that can slow down the process of the disease. Surgery is often suggested because of the tumours that can become cancerous and tumours that can cause body disfigurement. The symptoms that are ongoing throughout the disease like severe headaches they can be cured with medication. Children that inherit the disease at birth have a higher chance of having learning difficulties and neurological tests have to be taken before the child enters school and neurological counselling is a common solution to help the child be able to