According to the International Labor Organization ( ILO), about 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working in developing countries, with 8.4 million involved in especially hazardous work including prostitution, soldiering, forced and bonded labor, and other illicit activities. Out of that 250 million, at least 120 million work full time. Sixty-one percent are in Asia, 32 % in Africa, and 7% in Latin America. From this statistics it can be said that many of these children have no hope of benefiting from the booming global economy. Children are deprived of their right of getting education and contributing to their human capital accumulation.
Malaria remains the most common cause of illness and death in the country, accounting for about 50% of outpatient visits and 38% of hospital admissions. Malaria accounts for about 41% of all hospital deaths among children aged under 5 years (see figure). Hypertension, diabetes and mental illnesses are increasing with drastic changes in lifestyle and drug abuse. The greatest burden of disease is on rural populations, and on females within the rural population. The greatest burden of disease is on rural populations, and on females within the rural
Introduction and Justification Acute malnutrition is a disastrous public health condition of epidemic proportions. Right now 52 million children of age group of less than five years, experience acute malnutrition and 34 million of them bound to have most severe condition – Severe Acute Malnutrition. Death among under five years of age due to malnutrition was around 1 million every year(1). According to the World Health Organization(WHO), starvation and malnutrition were the single hazardous conditions to the world's public health (2). Mortality rate among malnourished children in the countries like Congo, Bangladesh, Uganda, etc., was 5-20 times higher compared to well-nourished children.
Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five years worldwide accounting for about 1.5 million deaths each year (UNICEF &WHO, 2009). Being a disease that occurs mainly in areas with poor water supply, hygiene, and sanitation, acute gastroenteritis is a common illness among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Children under five years in this region experience on average five diarrhoeal episodes every year (Boschi-pinto, 2009). In Kenya, diarrhea is the third leading cause of under five mortality (KDHS, 2008-09). Acute gastroenteritis is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract that commonly affects young children.
According to the PBS Frontline video “Poor Kids” 2012, more than 46 million Americans are living beneath the poverty line. The United States alone has one of the highest rates of child poverty in the industrialized world. It is stated that 1 out of 5 children are living in poverty. The video documented the lives of three families who are faced with extreme hardships and are battling to survive a life of being poor. All three families have more than one child and could barely afford to pay their bills and purchase food for their household.
Globally, 16 million adolescents give birth each year and covering 11% of births worldwide. Ninety five percent of these births take place in low and middle income Countries (WHO, 2008b). The average adolescent birth rate in middle income countries is more than two times high than that in high-income countries, and the rate in low-income countries is five times high (WHO, 2014). A report revealed that the teen pregnancies have declined dramatically in the United States since their peak in the early 1990s. In 2010, the teen pregnancy rate reached its lowest level in nearly 40 years, with especially large declines from 2008 to 2010 (Kost & Henshaw, 2014).
According to the Armenian National Statistical Service’s report (ANSR) (2013:229), the poverty rate in Armenia climbed 27.6% from 2008 to 32.4% in 2012. However, it is proven that poverty hits children hardest. According to the ANSR 4.7% of children live in families whose consumption falls below the extreme (food) poverty line and 41.9% of all children are classed as poor using the total poverty line, while extreme poverty and poverty rates in Armenia are 3.7% and 35.0%, respectively (2012:229). It is estimated that children are more likely to be poor, everything else held equal, if they have a disability or live with a disabled child, if they live in families headed by person with secondary education or lower, if their families are headed by non-married person and if they live in workless households (Yekaterina Chzhen, 2009:2). Whilst these figures do provide some indication of the overall impact of income poverty, Armenia does not yet systematically monitor child poverty and the real impact of social protection measures on poverty reduction; the adopted measures often fail to adequately capture poverty and
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1: The target of reducing extreme poverty rates by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. The global poverty rate at $1.25 a day fell in 2010 to less than half the 1990 rate. 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990. However, at the global level 1.2 billion people are still living in extreme poverty. Target 2: The hunger reduction target should be almost met by 2015.
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PREVALENCE OF DIABETES Diabetes is now the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in world. It is estimated that 382 million people are living with diabetes in the world, which is estimated 8.5% of the world’s population. Further 175 million people are still undiagnosed with their type 2 diabetes. According to the world health organization that this burden would increase nearly double in the next 25 years. With reference to the international diabetic federation the top 5 worst affected countries are China, UK, Russia, India and Brazil.
In 2009, there were over 6.7 million cases of malaria. Two out of every five deaths among young children are caused by malaria (WHO) (Africa). It is also estimated that about half a million people are infected with HIV/AIDS. The capital of Congo, Kinshasa, contains around 20-25,000 children who sleep rough and survive by begging (Africa). Most children also suffer from multiple vitamin deficiencies and extreme malnutrition.