Mainstream Cigarette Smoking

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Cigarette smoke and the body

A complex and dynamic mixture of chemical compounds make up cigarette smoke. Research has revealed that cigarette smoke has two phases a tar phase and a gas phase. Mainstream smoke is the smoke that is inhaled by the active smoker through the tobacco. The smoke given off at the end of the cigarette is referred to as the side stream. Mainstream cigarette smoke comprises 8% of tar and 92% of gaseous components. Side stream cigarette smoke contains a relatively higher concentration of the toxic gaseous component than mainstream cigarette smoke Side stream cigarette smoke contains a higher concentration of the toxic gaseous component than mainstream cigarette smoke . Cigarette smoking is implicated in neoplasms,
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This leads to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Cigarette smoke exposure impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in both brachial and coronary arteries. In the normal physiology of the cardiovascular system Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, is an important vasodilator primarily responsible for the vasodilation of the endothelium. Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with lower levels of nitric oxide. Therefore, cigarette smoking is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Cigarette smoking could promote atherosclerosis, in part, by its effects on lipid profile. Smokers have significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, but high-density lipoprotein is lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of acute MI,…show more content…
The reactive oxidant substances generated by smoking induce inflammation in the lung and its airway (61); cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, and lung parenchyma, which is present even in smokers with normal lung function (62). In general, the inflammatory and structural changes in the airways increase with disease severity and persist despite smoking cessation.
Cigarette smoking contributes to remarkable risk factors of noncommunicable diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, peptic ulcer disease and tuberculosis[49]. Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, and other serious internal diseases and cancers[50–54]. The non-stop chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke alters a wide range of immunological functions, including innate and adaptive immune
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