ABSTRACT A pneumothorax is a life threatening disease that results in a restrictive lung disorder. This condition is associated with atelectasis, chest wall expansion, and a decrease in cardiac venous return. Often caused by smoking, a pneumothorax can be detected from pulmonary function testings, arterial blood gas interpretations, and chest radiological findings.
PULMONARY OEDEMA Introduction Pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Left ventricular failure and also a result of non-cardiogenic complications (Deepak, 2010). In this essay the three main causes of oedema will be explained, the pathophysiology, the intensity factors and the management in a pre-hospital setting. Causes of Pulmonary Oedema The two main causes of oedema are cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Heart failure.
Hyaline membranes help to the development of fibrosis and atelectasis (collapse) essential to decrease in gas exchange capability and lung dysfunction. These changes cause the lungs to become stiff, patient work hard to inspire. Hypoxemia and the stimulation of juxtacapillary receptors in the stiff lung parenchyma leading to increase respiratory rate and decrease in tidal volume. Breathing irregular increase carbon dioxide removal,
In patients with flail chest and a large pleural effusion required chest tube placement after the first HFCWO treatment due to increasing serous pleural fluid; treatments were continued without further incident. None of the ten patients with solid organ injury being managed non-operatively required transfusion or operative management. Use of HFCWO did not result in increased bleeding or need for surgical treatment of solid organ injury in those subjects that were not scheduled for surgery. Anderson et al(2008) This study proves that HFCWO treatment is safe for trauma patients with lung and chest wall injuries.
Upper Lateral Thoracic Pain Dx: Pneumothorax (Pulmonary System) Clinical Presentation: Signs and symptoms vary depending on the size and the location of the pneumothorax.1 Patients may present with severe upper lateral thoracic back pain, ipsilateral shoulder pain, and sudden sharp chest pain or pain over the abdomen.1 Movement and coughing may provoke or aggravate the patients pain.1 The most comfortable position for the patient may be sitting upright and they might also present with dyspnea, a dry hacking cough, change in respiratory movements on affected side, increased neck vein distension, weak and rapid pulse, and/or fall in blood pressure.1 Other common signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax include a decrease or absence in breath sounds,
This situation is comparable to a patient, unconsciously lying in bed for operation. The patient has a tendency to have difficulty in breathing. Surgeons normally use endotracheal tube with subglottic suction to secure patients ability to breath. It serves as an open passage through the upper airway. In that sense, if the patient loses its capacity to breath, the tube
Contraction of muscles in the abdomen compresses the internal organs and forces air out of the tracheae. As the muscles relax, the abdomen springs back to its normal volume and air is drawn in. Large air sacs attached to portions of the main tracheal tubes increase the effectiveness of this bellows like
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Pneumonia that is observed in patients in the ICU who have been placed on ventilators is called ventilator associated pneumonia. This secondary infection from nosocomial bacteria is known to be the second most common infection affecting around 27% of all patients classified as being critically ill (Koenig and Truwit 637) or even the most common at 30% (Kollef 627). The type of ventilator-associated pneumonia that occurs within 72 hours of intubation is called the early onset pneumonia, and usually caused by the aspiration during the process of intubation. This pneumonia is caused by an antibiotic sensitive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The late onset pneumonia that sets in after this period is usually resistant to pathogens such as
When compliance decreases (stiff lungs), the rate increases, and the tidal volume decreases. Always compare the patient’s data with the machine’s data. The pressure support needed is based on the patient’s condition. When the patient gets stronger the pressure support can be dialed down and vice versa. If the respiratory rate is going high and the tidal volume is coming down patient is becoming tired and in need of more pressure support.
Later, ventilation–perfusion mismatching was found to be the major factor (38) and that a diffusion barrier to oxygen was only important during exercise(39). These physiologic measurements aid not only in diagnosis, and to assess disease severity, but also to evaluate the response to therapy, and to follow the course of the