Goa Coastal Zone Essay

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Context:
Over one third of the world’s population lives either at the coasts or in adjacent coastal low land areas. Coastal lands and coastal waters comprise substantial quantities of the nation’s agricultural, mineral and living resources. The coastal zone is characterized by a large variety of forms sandy beaches, rocky shores, river mouths, estuaries, lagoons, inter-tidal flats, wetlands and barrier islands, which have been shaped in the course of geological history. In and around these landforms, a number of specific biological communities have developed, including inter-tidal and marsh communities, mangroves, sea grass and coral reefs.
Man has settled in the coastal zone for reasons such as easy accessibility, availability of basic facilities
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Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, mining, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. In addition, social, financial issues and anti social activities are also the factors. The environmental issues are erosion at Anjunaand Kerimbeaches, seasonal erosion during monsoon in several parts of the coastal stretch including headlands, garbage and sewerage disposal, mining waste, indiscriminate tapping of ground water resources, violations of the CRZ notification, establishment of unplanned aquaculture ponds, salt inundation in Khazanlands, eutrophication and encroachments in wetlands and agriculture land rendered fallow. The coastal zone in Goa contains habitats and ecosystems, such as, estuaries, mangroves and is entailed with a galaxy of resources, which have definite role in the maintenance of the ecological balance andeconomic vitality of the coastal region. Climate change and associated sea level rise can be disastrous to small state like
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