Plummer (1985) found that brand image perceptions are formed whenever there is an indiret/direct contact with the brand. The consumer derives some intrinsic value from these associations. Aaker (1996) found the cognitive elements (ex product/ specification related characteristics) to be the primary precursors of brand personality. He also found that Brand Personality is a key component of Strong Brands (Aaker D. A., 1996) Research has also found that the functional/ utilitarian motivations could lead to emotional or affective reaction. This in turn may lead to the overall evaluation and thus lead to conative, behavior intention (e.g.
Attitudes correspond to descriptive characteristics of the product; benefits relate to the personal value attached to the product; and brand attitudes are used for customers’ evaluation of a product. Even though, Keller’s model is considered to be a pioneer in the marketing theory, and many companies choose alternative modern methods to develop brand equity (Jara & Cliquet,
Impulse buying may also be driven by other variables suchas rewards, possessions, materialism, moment desire, post-purchase decision and self-exploration (Greenley and Foxall, 1997). On the other hand, environmental variables might affect buying behaviours of consumers (Greenley and Foxall, 1997). Ayanwale et al. (2005) later examined this area in a study which aimed to determine the factors that influence consumer-buying behavior, particularly the economic, social and psychological aspects. They held that this would help to determine the direction the consumer behaviour is likely to make and to give preferred trends in product development, attributes of the alternative communication method, etc.
Consumer’s evaluation and attitude also distribute a significant influence to the brand and the brand alliance, it could influence the predisposition to behave towards a particular brand. Therefore, brand attitude is a principal factor that generates positive or negative impact towards the brand. There are three dimensions that are leading to influence on customer’s attitude. First, Cognitive dimension is a consumer’s beliefs and knowledge of a brand, which means a brands sign with a high awareness and familiarity have an important impact on consumers purchase attitude. Second, affective dimension is about the emotions and feeling of consumers towards of brands.
Product features are also called as brand quality or brand attitudes and is defined as consumers’ overall evaluation of the brand. Brand attitudes are important because they often form the basis for actions and behavior that consumers take with the brand. Consumers brand attitudes generally depend on specific considerations concerning the attributes and benefits of the brand (Keller, 2007). Attributes are those descriptive features that characterize a product or service-what a consumers thinks the product or service is or has and what is involved with its purchase or consumption. Product related attributes are defined as the ingredients necessary for performing the product or service function sought by consumers (Keller, 1993).
(See for instance: Mehta, S. (2000) Marketing Strategy) Matching and Converting in the SWOT Matrix SWOT analysis plays a role of determining and guides the creation or decision of the marketing strategies that will match the marketing trends or produce the preferred results. The process of analyzing the information with SWOT analysis enables company to find out the new opportunities and marketing strategies. In many ways, good marketing is the art of finding, developing and profiting from opportunities (Kotler, 1999). After getting the analysis of SWOT, companies should create a SWOT Matrix in order to find out the desirable combinations that can minimize or avoid the threats and grape the new opportunities, convert weakness to strengths and convert threats to
Communicating mean broadly, describing those offerings, as well as learning from customers. Next, delivering means getting those offerings to the consumer in a way that optimizes value. Then, exchanging means trading value for those offerings. (Tanner & Raymond, 2010) In the 4-P approach to marketing, it includes Product, Promotion, Place, and Price. Product means goods and services (creating offerings).
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Advertising is to create understanding, liking and selection of products or services. The most influencing theory in marketing and advertising research is attitude towards the advertisement. yet the attitude that formed towards the ad help in influencing the consumer’s attitudes and perception towards the brand until their purchase intent(Goldsmith & Lafferty,2002). 1. Shiffman and Kanuk(2004) explains the meaning of “Consumer Behavior” as the behavior that consumer behave in the form of acquiring, buying, using, evaluating, or consuming product, service and idea to fulfill own need, and be the study of the decision making of consumer in spending resources, both money, time and power for consuming products and services that included (1) What to buy, (2) Why to buy, (3)
Ref: EXCUTIVE SUMMARY Consumer is the king of any business activity. It is very important for any marketing person to know how the consumer perceives different things and how he behaves accordingly. So consumer research is impact for the success of any marketing effort. Hence an attempt is made in the present chapter to study the behavior and perception of consumer. First of all perception is the defined as the process of receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli of the data.
2. Literature review 2.1 Price Before brand loyalty, there is one factor that bring significant impact to consumers mind while selecting a product; which is price. Price is what consumers have to expend in order to obtain a product or service (Haghighi, Dorosti, Rahnama, & Hoseinpur, 2012). Aside the general meaning as mentioned above, price affects consumers’ willingness to buy and it also acts as reference to product quality (Indrayani, Siringoringo, & Saptariani, 2008). 2.1.1 Price and Willingness to Buy Indrayani explains that In order to comprehend the relation between price and brand loyalty, it is important to understand the acceptable price range concept (Indrayani, Siringoringo, & Saptariani, 2008).