Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked. Nerve fibers in the retina may begin to swell. Sometimes the central part of the retina (macula) begins to swell (macular edema), a condition that requires treatment. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Aneurysm Introduction: The term aneurysm is derived from the Greek word aneurysma meaning “a widening”.An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging likened to a bubble or balloon. Aneurysms are a result of a weakened blood vessel wall and may be a result of a hereditary condition or an acquired disease. Aneurysms can also be a nidus for thrombosis and embolization. As an aneurysm increases in size, the risk of rupture increases leading to uncontrolled bleeding. Although they may occur in any blood vessel particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta and abdominal aortic aneurysms.
There are many causes of cirrhosis including chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases). Symptoms • Yellowing of the skin (jaundice) due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood • Fatigue • Weakness • Loss of appetite • Itching • Easy bruising from decreased production of blood clotting factors by the diseased liver Causes • Alcohol • Viral Hepatitis B & c Effects • If the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis
In the stages of endometriosis you can experience different types of effects and stages. The stages are referred to as Stage I to Stage IV. The reproductive system can be compromised and cause infertility. Anatomically the disruption of pelvic structures, multiple production and activation of peritoneal macrophages cause the inflammation of the lower abdominal cavity. It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst.
In certain cases, medical teams will be attach catheter into the urine bag. When necessary, is done filming the structure of kidney with CT (computed tomography) scans or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and biopsies, that kidney tissue sampling. Causes Of Kidney Failure Diseases of the kidney failure is usually due to some serious disease that progressively damages organs that have an impact on sized in length ranging from 10-13 centimeters and a thickness 5 – 7.5 centimetres. There are several types of illnesses that can affect kidney damage, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and blockage of the urinary tract. Diseases of the urinary tract blockages such as stones, tumors, and also causes narrowing of the kidney failure.
Of course there are complications if it is not treated quickly, because we all know that we can avoid financial problems in this life. COMPLICATIONS : • Tears in the wall and rupture of the aorta are the main complication of thoracic aortic aneurysm. A ruptured aneurysm is so dangerous that some people can die because of the internal bleeding. • Trouble swallowing, Loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, trouble breathing, pain at the back, intense chest pain, shortness of breath, low blood pressure and weakness or paralysis of one side of the body sometimes the other sign for Stroke, are the symptoms that your thoracic aortic aneurysm has
If there is a complete block, then this can cause the area where the blood vessel supplies the blood to undergo necrosis which is also known as heart attack. SYMPTOMS Some of the symptoms exhibited by a person undergoing heart attack can vary from one person to another as this depends if this is a severe case of MI or a mild one. - Chest pain
These blood vessels usually nourish the retina. These blood vessels get blocked which causes irregular new blood vessels to form. Bleeding into the vitreous gel may occur due to these new blood vessels being weak. Retinal detachment may also occur because of these new blood vessels pulling on the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment in middle aged people and visual loss in older people.
DISCUSSION The Main anesthetic goal in Intraocular surgery is the maintenance of a stable intraocular pressure, as the sudden raise in Intraocular pressure during open eye surgery can cause prolapse of iris or lens and vitreous loss leading to permanent loss of vision. Conventional laryngoscopy with general anesthesia is usually practised in paediatric patients coming for Intraocular procedure. This causes sympathetic stimulation with resultant increase in IOP, with associated raise in MAP & HR. There are few studies conducted in children to compare the effect of insertion of LMA with endotra-cheal intubation on IOP. But there are a number of studies done on adults, to confirm that LMA serves as an effective alternative to endotracheal intubation.
A treatment option for those who have suffered an ischaemic stroke is thrombolysis. As 85% of strokes are ischaemic this is a treatment option for many (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).The goal of thrombolysis is to disintegrate the thrombus/embolus occluding the vessel and reduce the scale of tissue damage (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).It is important to note that thrombolysis using ateplase should only be used to treat acute ischaemic stroke once intracranial bleeding has been ruled out by diagnostic imaging, and within 4.5hours of onset by
Paints often develop difficulty breathing, cough, and wheezing. The pancreas is also frequently damaged in cystic fibrosis, which leads to recurrent pancreatitis, abdominal pain, diabetes, and malabsorption of nutrients. Patients that do not receive treatment typically progress and develop end-stage lung and pancreatic disease that may require organ transplantation. Due to the importance of this condition,
Not only can Cystic Fibrosis affect the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract but also the liver’s secretions. In small cases, the liver’s bile can become thick and cause build up and blockage in the hepatic ducts which can result in liver diseases and even cirrhosis. Some other common symptoms include above normal amount of salt in the person’s sweat and male
1) In mitral stenosis a diastolic murmur is present due to stenosis, or narrowing of the valve. The murmur is heard when the mitral valve fails to open appropriately in diastole. The leaflets of the valve are usually thicker, stiffer, and become misshapen from the effects of rheumatic fever or a congenital defect (Porth, 2011). The crackles in her lungs are likely due to left sided heart failure leading to pulmonary hypertension. This causes elevated pulmonary capillary pressure which pushes fluid into the interstitial spaces and alveoli (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2013) 2) Dizziness is a concerning symptom as it may mean her pulmonary hypertension is worsening.
Pseudoaneurysm A pseudoaneurysm happens when an artery is injured and blood leaks out to form a sac-like bulge. The bulge can break open, causing bleeding in the nearby tissues. CAUSES The most common cause of this condition is a procedure such as an angiogram in which a thin tube (catheter) is inserted into an artery. After an angiogram, the insertion site on the artery should close back up all the way. If it does not, blood may leak out of the artery.
Be sure to rehydrate with not only water, but salts and minerals to. 4. Bloody Stool Bloody stools are a disconcerting symptom of Crohn’s disease. As the inflammation of the bowels cause ulcers, blood may mix with the stool. If the blood comes from high in the digestive process, the stool may appear black in color.