CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
The heart, blood, and blood vessels all form the circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system. As one of the most important systems in the human body, the circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones and removes any waste products. Without the circulatory system, your organs wouldn't be able to function, causing death. With the blood vessels taking blood around the body, the heart pumps all this blood. According to Ballard, "Inside the heart there are four spaces called chambers.
The index finger can pass though the transverse sinus, which helps surgeons to identify the blood vessels of the heart during coronary artery bypass surgery. Oblique sinus is formed by reflection of the pericardial membranes onto the pulmonary veins. It is bounded by the inferior vena cava and by the right pulmonary veins on one side and the left pulmonary veins on the other. Functions of the Pericardium The pericardium is known to have some specific functions: • Tethering: pericardium holds the heart in place within the cardiac
Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries. When the blood has been worn-out of oxygen, it makes its way back to the heart and lungs through the veins. The circulatory system might also comprise the circulation of lymph, which is basically recycled blood plasma once it has been filtered
Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates. When a patient's blood is continuously removed and returned through plastic tubing to allow
The cell’s secretion help on lubricating the heart, preventing heart friction with its surrounding organs during contractions, holding the heart inside the chest and maintaining a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full of blood. 1.1.2 Structure of the heart wall The heart wall is composed of 3 layers (figure 3): • Epicardium: As mentioned before, the epicardium is at the same time the outermost layer of the heart wall and the inner wall of the pericardium (visceral layer). It protects and lubricates the
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Assignment 1 – Unit 11 Physiology of Human Body Systems Task 1 The lymphatic system is the system which is involved in homeostasis in our body by draining the interstitial fluid. It is also in charge of defending our bodies from diseases. This is because the lymphatic system provides the place for formation and maturation of the lymphocytes which the white blood cells involved in immunity which are activate when they are in contact with antigens. Also the lymphatic system stops fluid form building up in the tissues in our body and its acts as a filter for the blood and removes the pathogens and antigens from the blood. Role of the parts: Lymph nodes – Lymph nodes are enclosed, located around the lymph vessels.
When its full the pressure causes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves to open and blood flows into the ventricles. Contraction of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and the atria relax (diastole). The pressure closes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves causing the first sound of the heartbeat. The contraction of the ventricles opens the semilunar valves, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
CO poisoning can cause serious implications such as organ failure, heart damage, and brain damage. Death may occur in cases when your body begins to replace the oxygen in your blood with CO. Treatments will help prevent life-threatening complications. Oxygen Treatment – This treatment helps increase the oxygen levels in the blood and remove the CO from the person’s blood. An oxygen mask is paced over the patient’s nose and mouth then be asked to inhale.
Transposition of the Great Arteries, Pediatric A good way to understand this condition is to first think about how blood flows in the body. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other places in the body. The two largest of these arteries are called the great arteries. One of them, the pulmonary artery, takes blood from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, oxygen is added to the blood.
The liver has a portal vein as well as a hepatic vein. It also has unique exchange blood vessels similar to capillaries, called “sinusoids.” How do these unique structures determine the function of the organ? • The livers main function is to filter and process the blood it receives. The portal vein and hepatic vein then deliver the nutrient rich blood to the capillaries (sinusoids). The blood seeps in the sinusoids on its way to the hepatic veins, and then to the vena cava.
PULMONARY OEDEMA Introduction Pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Left ventricular failure and also a result of non-cardiogenic complications (Deepak, 2010). In this essay the three main causes of oedema will be explained, the pathophysiology, the intensity factors and the management in a pre-hospital setting. Causes of Pulmonary Oedema The two main causes of oedema are cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Heart failure. When the heart loses the ability to pump out blood to systemic circulation, it back flows into the pulmonary circulation.
Blood flows from your right and left atria into your ventricles through the open tricuspid and mitral valves. When the ventricles are full, the tricuspid and mitral valves shut which prevents blood from flowing back into the atria while the ventricles contract. As the ventricles begin to contract, the pulmonic and aortic valves are forced open and blood is pumped out of the ventricles.