A survey by Jacques and colleagues  have survived and classified a wide range of studies in the field of crowd analysis using machine vision techniques. To predict behavior of the crowd, many parameters can be considered and studied, for instance speed of the crowd movement, crowd density and movement of persons against the mass movement of the crowd . In some studies, abnormal behavior of the crowd is recognized by presenting a model . One of the most important factors to evaluate the risk in the public is the crowd density. There are many articles on different methods of crowd density estimation [3, 4, 5, 7, 8].
Crowd behaviour analysis is an active area of research. It has in its scope various flourishing areas of study- including, but not limited to- global path planning of pedestrians, behaviour of crowds in evacuation and the impact of obstacles on pedestrian flow. In many experiments, especially pertaining to panic situations, it is important to have realistic crowd simulation models to test results. In order to do this, it is important to understand how a crowd behaves in various scenarios and also to observe how individuals in a crowd interact with each other. Professor Keith G. Still (2000) in his research on crowd dynamics had provided a set of conditions and suggestions to manage and observe crowds, based on JJ Fruin’s early guidelines on
Rationale, aim, and purpose of this exploration The discussion made by the theorists posed the question of how accurate and relevant information is on and offline, and how we as citizens of the world, manage to identify statements made by others that are unacceptable - this is where I became interested into graphs and data and started to look up more information regarding phase diagrams. Not everyone has sufficient knowledge in all fields; therefore “experts” on media platforms can easily fool
1.5.3. Surveillance- Objects can be recognized and tracked for various video surveillance systems. Object recognition is required so that the suspected person or vehicle, for example be tracked. 1.5.4. Robotic- The research of autonomous robots is one of the most important issues in recent years.
When people hear the word stereotype they tend to immediately think discrimination, racism, and/or gender inequality. Naturally these are dreadful terms, however, stereotyping has drawbacks and positive aspects. For example, in law enforcement, it is important to hold certain stereotypes such as if an officer spots a group of people wearing all red garments, across the street, he could keep himself and others safe by staying hypervigilant and mentally categorizing the group as norteno gang members. On the other hand, if the officers’ response is too extreme such as pulling out his gun, pointing at them, and asking searching them with no real reason; further if the group happens to be composed of African-Americans he may come out as racist which would result in bigger problems. Evidently, stereotypes can be helpful but they can also be harmful.
Additionally, Professor Ervin Staub, of Amy Novotney’s article, “Preventing Police Misconduct”, believes that commonplace conformity and active bystander ship leads to more misconduct among police officers. Solomon E. Asch would agree with this claim based off of his research in social psychology. His research proves that pressure from a majority group can lead a person to conform. As well as people regulating their behavior in terms of the norms and values of the group. When police officers are faced with the issue of seeing the majority of those around them behaving in an improper manner, they too will feel the need to act accordingly.
Tracking techniques have been studied extensively for such purposes as video content analysis as well as remote surveillance. They greatly depend on motion and object detection stage. Moving objects are temporally tracked from one frame to another by features-based matching such as shape, blob, points, etc . It can be 2D, from a single camer a, or 3D by combining two views with known geometric relationships. Moving object tracking is useful for many applications such as traffic congestion monitoring , abnormal event detection , fight detection, abandoned or stolen objects , elderly person monitoring in indoor environment , Detection of presence in a forbidden area, car parking and sudden stopped object, etc.
For many years the discipline of social psychology develops different theories and perspectives about the human behaviour, taking into account the ethical issues, but also the challenges of personal safety by making direct observation. Many theories focused their study on behaviour to the individual belonging to a crowd. Researchers have described deindividuation as the process of immersion into a group where an individual loses his personal identity and becomes part of the crowd. Studies on deindividuation showed how aggressiveness and anti-normative behaviour arise within crowds, which are influenced by the situation and the environment creating chaos and disruption (for example rioting and hooliganism). Such researchers tend to focus on
For example, researchers have used a mathematical framework that benefits from the spatial relationships between places to estimate location from a sequence of images captured by multiple wearable cameras.15 The images recorded via WVLs can be also used to reliably recognize places. In addition, an image-sequence–matching technique can be used to recognize the locations of previously visited places. Activity Recognition Human-activity recognition is a key component for many applications such as indoor positioning, surveillance systems, and patient-monitoring systems. It is also important for various systems that involve interactions between people and electronic devices, such as socially enabled robots and human–computer interfaces. Wearable cameras can facilitate human-activity recognition in such scenarios.16 For example, researchers have developed a method that can recognize the user’s activity by analyzing the picture captured by a front-facing acamera embedded in eyeglasses.17
Some people may take in the data, yet they may settle on no choices or make no move. Conflict theory refers to the media reflect and worsen a heavy portion of the divisions of our general public and world, including those focused around sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and social class. The media has the ability to decide what needs to be shown through gatekeeping. Gatekeeping is how the information is filtered through checkpoints before it reaches the audience. Conflict theorists contend that the broad communications serve to keep up the benefits of specific groups.