Introduction: Daphina are planktonic crustaceans that belong to the class Phyllopoda(Branchiopoda) to which flattened leaf-legs used in producing a water vcurrent for their filtering apparatus. In the brachiopods, Daphnia belong to the order Cladocera whose bodies are encloosed by carapace, which is made up of chitin and polysaccharide. The carpace forms double wall separates hemolymph anda part of body cavity.Animals which belong to the order Cladocera, have up to 10 pairs of appendages, which include antennules, antennae maxillae, madibles, five or six limbs, which also form an apparatus for both feeding and respiration(this apparatus is used to filter food particles even bacteria. So, they are filter feeders) and a pair of claws. In Cladocera,
The phylum Nematoda is the only vermiform phylum in the ecdysozoa branch of protostomia hence in the following paragraphs, we will be looking into the similarities and differences between the phylum Nematoda and phylum Annelida which is a vermiform phylum from lophotrochozoa. Annelida
They break down dead biological matter and waste products and convert them into useable energy; returning important materials to the environment. Decomposers are a particular important feature in the Great Barrier Reef considering the heavy bio-load. Main decomposers inside the reef include bacteria, sea cucumbers, some species of snails, crabs and bristle worms. Bacteria sis not only vital for the Great Barrier Reef’s food web, but is also said by scientists that it could be the key to keeping the coral healthy and able to withstand the impacts of global warming. Dr Tracy Ainsworth stated “it is very likely that these microorganisms play a vital role in the capacity of coral to recovering from bouts of bleaching caused by rising temperatures.” Corals rely on these good bacteria’s crucially although we don’t yet understand these microbe’s ell enough to know how they influence coral survival, which is vital in maintaining the food web of the Great Barrier Reef.
These is sufficient ammonia present of suppress nitrogen fixation. Important: in terms of generate nitrogen available to all organisms, the symbiotic associations very much exceed the free-living species with the exception of cyanobacteria. The world's growing population, depends ultimately on plants for food.They in turn depend on supply of nutrients, especially nitrogen compounds, in the soil. In world agriculture today, the natural processes for replenishing nitrogen used up by crops are too slow to sustain the productivity needed, and the shortfall is made up by chemical fertilizers, prepared industrially by taking nitrogen from the atmosphere, the Haber process. A few type of bacteria, collectively called, diazotrophs (di = two, azo = nitrogen, troph = feeder}, can use nitrogen from the atmosphere, but plants can not.
Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called “fruit flies”. One species of Drosophila in particular D.melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. The entire genus, however, contains about 1,500 species and is very diverse in appearance, behavior, and breeding habitat. Scientists who study Drosophila attribute the species’ diversity to its ability to be competitive in almost every habitat, including deserts. (Ref to Book of Deepa Parvathi Va, Akshaya Amritha Sa, Solomon FD Paul).
Protozoan infections are a common matter in tropical countries and have severe impact on public health issues (Department of Dermatology at Federal University of the state of Rio de Janeiro). The ecological role of protozoa is very important; they play an important role in the food chain. In aquatic ecosystems, protozoa act as dominant consumer of bacteria [Fenchel 1984, Sieburth 1984, Porter et al. 1985] whereas ciliated protozoa are considered as bacteriovore only in sediments, or in particular material [Caron et al. 1982, Sieburth 1984, Silver et al.
They never grow more than an inch long at most and make nice small fish to start off with. It’s hard to tell the male from the female so just grab some and hope for the best. 3) Danios Danios are also called Zebra Fish because they have black or silver horizontal stripes. The males and females look the same so they too are hard to tell apart. Danios are passive fish that will never bother other fish and they are very playful, chasing each other and zipping across the tank like they were playing tag.
The field observations followed by toxicity studies against different insecticides suggest that pest has developed resistance against many insecticides. Recent line of work at global level suggest that gut microbes play an important role that manipulate many physiological functions of the insects, including host-insect morphogenesis, food digestion, nutrition, antifungal toxin production, pheromone production, regulation of pH, synthesis of vitamins, temperature tolerance, resistance against parasitoid development and detoxification of noxious compounds. Our study was pointed towards quantification of microbial diversity present in the alimentary canals and their possible role in insecticide degradation. As evidence by the above role played by microflora in insecticide resistance, present work was carried out to characterize the diversity of culturable microflora and determine their role as endosymbionts in leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula in pesticide degradation, thus imparting insecticide resistance. Identifying the interactions between the insects and their gut bacteria may provide the way for novel approaches for insect control.
1.INTRODUCTION The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles found in terrestrial ecosystems. The element nitrogen plays a special role for the yield and quality formation of forage cultivationbreeding in agriculture. Large quantities of nitrogen are fixed by plants in form of ammonium or nitrate ions for their own growth. Crop nitrogen is then an essential feed component for animal growth and development in form of protein nitrogen. After animals’ digestion nitrogen can be detected in certain amounts in the products like milk or meat, but the major portion is excreted in the feces.
Frogs made up most of the remainder of the diet. Crabs are much more important to A.capensis which took relatively few fish in Natal. Frogs are also important because they were taken in greater numbers in winter when crabs became inactive. The crabs taken by H.maculicollis were generally small , whereas A.capensis took all sizes (Tomlinson, 1974). Rowe-Rowe, (1977c) concluded that the food overlap between Aonyx and Hydrictis was