Governance has to rely on efficient mechanisms for running the state, formulating wise policies, implementing them in good order and providing services to citizens. For this reason, the bureaucracy has played a prominent role in governance at the local level. There have been many occasions where the bureaucracy has proved a barrier to the consolidation of local democratic institutions (Gadot et al, 2008). In the case of the Dhaka City Corporation, the found that central government, through bureaucracy, has full control over local governance. The capacity of local governance structures is limited in its decision-making
It is through examples like these that it is possible for Stewart to show the audience the importance of democracy – not for its benefits, but as an ideal. To get this intention across to the audience, Stewart focuses on how the concept of democracy still is being challenged and misinterpreted by various institutions of power while he explains the elements necessary for a democracy to function optimally as well. To explain the ways that democracy is challenged and misinterpreted today, Stewart uses the country of Jamaica as an example. In his given example, Stewart explains how the power balance in Jamaica is off as the people in power, such as congressmen, is highly educated graduating from universities such as Harvard and Princeton, while much of the general public lives in poverty with restricted access to power through education. Stewart furthermore explains how the concept of democracy is misinterpreted through mistrust.
If state and lawmakers are careful in identifyings societiy’s needs and problems, law should improve quality of life. The government’s foundation is in the consent of the governed. In a democracy, the citizens are sovereign which means they are the prime form of political authority. Power is from the people to the rulers of government, who hold power only temporarily. In a democracy, citizens are free to criticise the elected leaders and representatives, and to view how they deal with the matters of government.
Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme powers are vested in the people and is exercised by them indirectly or directly through a system of representation usually involving periodic fair elections (http://www.zesn.org.zw/publications/publication_280.pdf). Most importantly, the rule of is needed to ensure that governors are held accountable through elections that are free and fair (Rose, R 2009) Democracy really means nothing or less than the rule of people, expressing their Sovereign
Both forms of government tend to use a representational system — i.e., citizens vote to elect politicians to represent their interests and form the government. In a republic, a constitution or charter of rights protects certain inalienable rights that cannot be taken away by the government, even if it has been elected by a majority of voters. In a democracy the majority is not restrained in this way and can impose its will on the minority. Most modern nations are democratic republics with a constitution, which can be amended by a popularly elected government. This comparison therefore contrasts the form of government in most countries today with a theoretical construct of a democracy, mainly to highlight the features of a republic.
Different time periods and different civil societies from different parts of the globe have their own models and interpretation of democracy. According to David Held (2008), democracy is a form of government which is a contradiction to monarchies and aristocracies, the people rule which entails a political community in which there is some form of political equality among people. A government of the people, by the people and for the people in which every mature and able citizens have the right to elect and be elected in public office and actively participate in the political affairs of the society. It is necessary for a democratic state to have an active participation from its politicized and educated citizens thru its civil society in order for it to work well as a system. As discussed by Hollifield and Jillson (2000, p. 31) a civil society is necessary if there is to be a democracy because the state needs to know the active interest of the people, the state of public opinion and more particularly, how much support various specific interests can command with respect to different policy options.
Riley in his International Tracking Survey Report’03 titled “E-Government vs. E-Governance” says that Governance is a set of continuous processes and could be assumed to developed slowly with use rather than change dramatically (say with a change of government). Riley peruses Kettl’s observation that "Governance" is a way of describing the links between government and its broader environment – political, social, and administrative. Each of these dimensions forms a side of the "governance triangle" and emphasizes that Governance being distinct from government; it concerns longer-term processes rather than immediate decisions. He elaborates three categories of these processes to cover interactions between the government, the public service, and the citizenry. The engagement process covers the interaction between citizens and government; the consultation process covers the interaction between public servants and citizens; and the implementation process covers the interaction between the government and the public service.
The community participation debate in local governments and its effects on planning are attracting attention among scholars all over the world (Eversole, 2011; Chirenje, Gilba & Musamba, 2012; Enshassi & Kullab, 2014; Madzivhandila & Maloka, 2014). In developed and developing countries, governments focus strongly on developing and strengthening local communities as mechanisms for both increased efficiency and effectiveness (Sullivan & Skelcher, 2002; Lowndes & Sullivan, 2004; Vadeveloo & Singaravelloo, 2013). Stoker (2011) finds that local government systems in most of the countries sustain close relationship with its citizens in giving better services. Community participation provides citizens the opportunity to influence collective decisions
1 Introduction Constitutionalism is the idea, often associated with the political theory that an authority wielding public power or purporting to represent the interest of the governed and should be legally limited in its powers, and that its authority or legitimacy depends on its observing these limitations. The origins of the term democracy can be traced back to Ancient Greece. According to Heywood like other words ending in ‘cracy’, democracy is derived from the Greek word kratos, meaning power or rule. Democracy thus means ‘rules by the demos’ (the demos referring to ‘the people’, although Greeks originally used this to mean ‘the poor’ or ‘the many’). 2 Democracy 2.1 Definition of democracy According to Heywood amongst meanings that have been attached to the word ‘democracy’ are the following: a system of rules by the poor and disadvantaged; a form of government in which the people rule themselves directly and continuously, without the need for professional politicians or public officials; a society based on equal opportunity and individual merit, rather than hierarchy and privilege; a system of welfare and redistribution aimed at narrowing social inequalities; a system of decision-making based on the principle of majority rule; a system of rule that secures the rights and interests of minorities by placing checks upon the power of the majority; a means of filling public offices through a competitive struggle for the popular vote; a system of government that serves
That why governance as a concept comprises the institutions, processes and conventions in a society which determine how power is exercised, how important decisions affecting society are made and how a variety of interests harmonized in such decisions (Institute of Governance, 2002). 2.2.2 Good governance Good governance as a basic development agenda has got significant momentum in the world especially in the last decade and has become the issue that attracts the attentions of different economists, political scientists, lawyers, Politian, international, regional and national organizations and various donor agencies. The notion of good governance is relatively new. It surfaced in 1989 in the World Bank’s report on Sub-Saharan Africa, which characterized the crisis in the region as a crisis of governance (World Bank 1989). Recently, the concept of good governance predominate contemporary national and global political discussions.