Then, the flask is put on shaker table and mixed at 150 rounds per minute before allowing them to settle for 10 minutes. After settling, the water sample is poured from side spout which is connected to the bottom of the flask. Some researchers reported better reproducibility with modified flask where stopcock is installed at the bottom of the flask, instead of side spout to pour the water sample (Blondina, et al., 1997) (Sorial, et al., 2004a) (Sorial, et al., 2004b). The dispersed oil in the removed water sample is extracted into methylene chloride for further analysis. Then, the oil concentration is evaluated using 340, 370 and 400 nm light absorbance (Environmental Protection Agency,
Ethylene and the catalyst promoter (HCl) are introduced into the reactor through sparges and effectively all ethylene is converted into ethylbenzene. Low ethylene and high benzene ratios are used in order to give desired yield of ethylbenzene. Most commercial plants operate at the ratio if 0.3-0.35 because as the ratio increased, more side reactions will occur such as transalkylation and isomeric rearrangement. Further alkylation of ethylbenzene will leads to formation of polyalkylbenzenes. The loss in net yield can be recovered by recycling the material to the alkylation
The hydrothermal technique usually gives hydroxyapatite powders a high degree of crystallinity. However, need high temperature and the obtained powders are usually in agglomeration and the size distribution are usually in wide range. The main advantage of emulsion technique is the simplicity of the process, good crystallinity product without high temperature, and favours the formation of small crystallites with a sufficient narrow size distribution. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite has many advantages, which include high product purity, homogeneous composition, and low synthesis temperature. When the mass production of high crystalline hydroxyapatite is required, mechanochemical treatment is more suitable.
At this point (P0/T0), heat is added to the refrigerant and it evaporates back to the gas phase. This implies that waste heat can be utilized as a viable energy sources, but it is also possible to use the evaporation stage for cooling the surrounding environment or other relevant streams. The
Cooling Tower Another type of direct contact heat transfer device is cooling tower. Cooling towers are used for heat dissipation from the water which carries heat from another process, which can be a power cycle, furnace etc. In a typical cooling tower, warm water is poured at the top of the tower and cool (and preferably dry) air is blown from the below. Within the cooling tower arrays of plates are set so the surface area between air and water is increased thus the heat transfer increases. When the water reaches bottom it cools and it is then pumped to system where moist and warm air leaves the tower.
The end product was passed via sieve (no. 85) and stored in desiccators until use. 2.3. Preparation of DS loaded mucoadhesive beads PC-SA [F0], DS-SA [F1] and DS-PC-SA [F2-F6] beads were prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and the compositions are summarized in Table 1. Initially, PC gum was dissolved in distilled water and boiled for 10 min, cooled and stirred for 24 h at
Ion Exchange This is a process is used commonly for water softening, by which ions that are dissolved in water are transferred to, and held by, a solid material or exchange resin. Mechanical Filtration This process removes dirt, sediment, and loose scale from the incoming water by sand, filter paper, or glass wool or other straining materials and suspended particles, These filters will not remove any dissolved substances. Reverse Osmosis This technology treats water successfully with high salt content, and dissolved minerals. It is effective with some detergent, taste, salt, color, and odor-producing chemicals and certain organic
Hydronic warmth is easy to get it. It is a technique used to exchange warm by means of water to warming and cooling frameworks. It is a typical approach to warmth radiators and steam warming units. Vast structures utilize it for warmth and furthermore for their substantial scale aerating and cooling frameworks. Things called "chillers" are utilized to cool the water and "boilers" warm the water in these structures.
This process may be classified as forced convection. The immersed condenser system still takes advantage of the high heat transfer coefficient associated with boiling. Therefore this system can remove heat from the surface of electronics at a high rate. However, there are a few limitations to this system. The capacity of this system is limited to the rate at which external cooling liquid can remove heat in a liquid to liquid heat exchanger.