Data from The Sentencing Project shows that “African Americans use drugs at a 9.7% rate. This is considerably higher compared to 8.1% for whites and 7.6% for Hispanics” (King., Mauer, p.18, 2007). This is one of the reasons why African Americans are a primary target when it comes to drug policies and sentencing laws. This makes this group more inclined to be arrested compared to other races. Especially because, “African Americans make up 14% of the nation’s monthly drug users, they also represent 37% of individuals arrested for a drug offense, and 56% represent individuals in state prison for a drug conviction” (King., Mauer, p.20, 2007).
The purpose of this literature review is to prove that drug court programs are an effective alternative to incarceration for people struggling with substance abuse issues. According to the Bureau of Justice statistics seventeen percent of prisoners at the state level were incarcerated due to drug related crimes. Eighteen percent of federal cases were related to drugs (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004). According to Lutze and Van Wormer the drug court model was formulated in response to the revolving cycle involved with substance addiction and crime.
Thefts rose 9 percent, and assault and battery incidents rose 13 percent. By the end of Prohibition the number of federal convicts had increased 561 percent and the federal prison population increased by 361 percent from. All American cities experienced increases in crime, with Chicago becoming a prime example of this corruption. Speakeasies, illegal bars that often had their own bootleggers, began popping up all over the city. The bootleggers and the city officials both found the arrangements very profitable since bootleggers made money from their speakeasies and in turn paid off the police, politicians and corrupt prohibition
In the 20s, the American government tried to enforce a ban on alcohol, but in the process, caused “the greatest crime wave in the country 's history, causing thousands of deaths from bad alcohol, and creating a general (and persisting) contempt among the citizenry for the laws of the United States.” Gore also uses logos when he writes that in 1969 the government slightly “curtailed” the supply of marijuana, and this led to kids getting hooked on more dangerous drugs like heroin, and overall increasing the number of deaths. He suggests that the government, and the crime organizations, benefits from making drugs illegal. That way, both sides are able to flip a profit. This also appeals to the audience’s opinion— many Americans distrust the government and have negative opinions about it.
In the video, “Heroin and the War on Drugs”, the setting primarily takes place in New York and Washington, D.C. in the late 1960’s to early 70’s. Users of heroin were desperate and would do practically anything to acquire money to attain more drugs, which caused crime rates to skyrocket. Reactions to this were severe, Rockefeller and other politicians came down with harsh drug laws and John Dun supported these strict laws. People were imprisoned for life for selling more than an ounce of heroin. While this was going on in New York, Washington D.C. took an enhanced medical approach.
Like it is mentioned in the movie 13th “The so called war on drugs was a war on communities of color”. So, now black people are being arrested much more than White people even though the drug use is close to the same as Angela F. Chan points out in her article for the Huffington Post. “Even though Black people use drugs at the same rate as White people, they are incarcerated for drug crimes at 20 to 50 times the rate of White people in some states”. A law that was passed during the war on drugs was mandatory sentencing.
In America, 2.3 million people are in prison. American has the highest prison population in the world. This is due to “tough on crime laws” that have been enforced since the 1960’s. Although these laws do help keep crime off the street, they have done more harm than good for our country. Mass incarceration is a major issues in America, it leads to poverty, broken families, money wasted, and many other problems.
African Americans have been struggling and fighting hate crimes since the 1860s after the Emancipation Proclamation and continue to do so today with the black lives matter and the fight against police brutality and unfair judgement. “More than fifty out of every one million black citizens was the victim of a racially motivated hate crime in 2012,” (Sreenivasan). Hispanics are also causalities in this never-ending battle of hate crime. Between 2003 and 2007 the number of cases of hate crimes jumped by 40%. Several stories and accounts of this is because of the accusation that “[the Mexicans] are taking our jobs” and “are causing
In terms of public safety, only 3% of individuals who were involved in treatment programs committed violent crimes after treatment; this number doubles for those who were sentenced to jail and prisons. New York has made the necessary changes to start viewing The War on Drugs and its influence on Mass Incarceration as not only a criminal justice issue but also now a mental health and public health problem. From the beginning, stakeholders saw the flaws and have spent about 36 years working out the issues. The reform is a good stepping stone toward a more just system, but just as the original Rockefeller drug Laws had their issues, the new reforms will have issues that will be worked out through the years to
violent or nonviolent (1). It is hard to figure out who is a violent criminal due to the way they were charged under the justice system. There is no way of showing whether or not violence was used while they were dealing or drug using. These statistics prove that by focusing on other resolutions for non-violent crimes, the incarceration rates could be reduced. Along with rehabilitation for drug offenders, there is also a need for proper rehabilitation of mentally ill patients and prisoners to keep them from relapsing and ending up back in the system.
As of 2014 “Heroin is now causing more deaths than car crashes or violent crime”. This concerning statistic was brought forth from Retro Report’s film “Heroin and the War on Drugs” published by The New York Time’s. The saddening video clip commences with the 1960’s when America’s heroin drug problem truly began to flourish. It voices Richard Nixon during his presidential campaign ad of 1968 where he stated “crimes of violence in America will double by 1972. We cannot accept that kind of future for America” and continues on by exposing the harsh drug laws implemented by Nelson Rockefeller.
In the early 1980s, the United States declared an all-out war on drugs and over the past several decades the United States of America has traveled down a dark road when it comes to sentencing for drug offenses. One of the major tools that they used in this war on drugs is the mandatory sentencing laws. These laws were enacted in 1984 to help combat and get violent drug dealers off our streets. What these laws did was set a mandatory minimum sentence that stated if you are arrested for fifteen or more grams of crack cocaine, you would be charged as if you had five hundred grams of powder cocaine thus getting you a minimum of a ten year sentence in prison. If you are arrested for growing 100 marijuana plants under these draconian laws, you would be charged as if you were possession of 100 pounds of marijuana which carries a minimum of a five-year
In Tennessee, the number one abused substance is prescription opioids, and drug-related crimes have increased 33% in the last ten years. Opioid overdoses affect everyone, and the cost to society is huge. “In the United States, prescription opioid abuse costs were about $55.7 billion in 2007. Of this amount,