Heating is when the inoculating loop and the needle are burned in the direct flame until it turns red in colour while flaming is just passing the forceps and mouth of the culture tubes through the flame to prevent bacteria from entering. The second technique is moist heat sterilisation whereby an autoclave is used. Autoclave is operated at a temperature of 121°C and a pressure of 15 psi for about 15-20 minutes. In this experiment,
You Must use Turnitin to submit the exam. Water and Sewage Microbiology: 1. List the steps of in a water purification plant. a. Screening to separate the large contaminants from the water b. Coagulation to attract small contaminants c. Sedimentation where water sits and finishes coagulation d. Filtration to remove any small remaining contaminants and particles e. Disinfection by disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine to kill microorganism or remaining bacteria 2.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reaction, and they work best at their optimal conditions (optimum pH, temperature etc.) but when the environment is not close to the optimum conditions, the enzymes denature and do not function anymore1. An excellent example would of the effect of temperature on yeast fermentation would be that the bacterial cells if exposed to very high temperature (above the optimal) would no longer function since their enzymes are denatured. The yeast would produce the most Carbon dioxide in the optimal temperature (45 °C ±1/°C) and other temperatures below the optimal temperature would not produce sufficient Carbon dioxide and any temperature above will produce too much that it will lead to the sinking of the bread and death of yeast because its enzymes have been denatured, therefore the reaction will stop. The bread will certainly sink if is not exposed to the right temperature the yeast will not ferment
In the lab, “Properties of Hydrates,” the purpose was to compare the properties of several well observable hydrates and to determine if dehydration is a reversible or irreversible change. The lab consisted of attaining a pea-size sample of each compound, burning it over a bunsen burner, and comparing the starting mass and the mass lost after the combustion. These results are important to be able to identify a variety of different chemicals that contain water molecules as part of their crystalline structure. Some can be removed by heating (resulting in evaporation) and some remain mostly unchanged. In this lab the answer will be found.
This chemical reaction produces oxygen gas. In hot substances, the enzyme reaction speeds up. In cold substances, the reaction takes a long time, or will never create a chemical reaction Does boiling a potato eliminate its enzymes? Boiling a potato will speed up its enzyme chemical reaction, but if you heat it up to much it will cook and the reaction will stop because all of the enzymes will be cooked. Does freezing a potato eliminate its enzymes?
It has the shortest reported generation time of any organisms, approximately 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium. Virulence factors of the causative agent: C. perfringens can survive in high temperatures such as 54-140 degrees Fahrenheit. The spores quickly germinate causing the bacteria to grow. This bacterium grows the quickest at temperatures such as 109-117 degrees Fahrenheit. If the food is served without reheating to kill the bacteria, live bacteria may be consumed.
The lab testing consists of investigating the rate of oxidation of Acid Sulfate Soils with variant temperatures. Since the transformation from PASS to AASS involves a significant pH drop to approximately one, rate of reaction and time was measured until the pH levels in the reaction even out at a low pH of approximately one. Appendix A & B demonstrate the oxidation reaction trials for each temperature over time, with pH levels recorded once every second. The time when the data stopped recording was determined when either the reaction had finished, or the time exceeds twelve minutes. This time limit was set due to a constricted time allowance of experiments.
The plasmid needs to be isolated from the bacterial cells and the technique used is called alkaline lysis. This technique plays around with the pH to extract plasmid DNA. The culture is grown in medium containing ampicillin to select E.coli that have ampicillin resistance gene as their selectable marker. The addition of detergent to the cells causes cell lysis. The detergent attaches to the cell membrane and capture the protein and lipids of the cell membrane causing the cell to rupture.
The dye molecule dispersed the way it did based on the temperature of water. Warmer water causes the molecules to disperse faster than colder water. In addition, the atoms vibrate and bounce faster the hotter the water is, all ending in a uniform solution. Do you believe you would observe the same results if you changed the food coloring? Why or why not?
The molecular weight of a substance has a great influence to its rate of diffusion. The results from the experiment showed that a substance with a lower molecular weight like potassium permanganate has a high rate of diffusion unlike other substances with high molecular weight because of the number of diffusible molecules. If there is a high quantity of diffusible molecules present in a substance, most likely, it will have a slow rate of diffusion. More accurate results can be achieved by considering various factors like the correct handling of specimens, the type of medium where diffusion is taking place, temperature, equal amount of substance used, and others. LITERATURE CITED Brown, LeMay, Bursten.