This defect causes complications and makes it difficult for the mitral valve to regulate blood flow in the heart. The deregulation of blood flow affects the lungs by allowing extra blood to flow into the organs. The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated. Atrioventricular septal defect is
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis.
According to the text, Foucus on Health by Dale Hahn , there are multipples risk factors can be devolping cardiovascular disesase. First would be tabacco smoking, which is a risk factors with sudden cardiac death. Smokers have four times higher chance fromdying from sudden cardiac arrest as nonsomkers do. Then there is physical inactivity as a risk factor to cardiovascular diseases. Having consistent aerobatic exerices helps strengthen heart muslces, matining blood flow and improving the vascular system transfer blood and oxygen to different parts of the body.
The heart pumps blood round a complex route of many vessels. This brings about a resistance and generates pressures within the system. This pressure in the blood is high when the left ventricle is contracting and working and it reduces when it is at rest. The pressure is high also when blood is pumped into the artery to be distributed all over the body.
Aneurysms are when a weakened area in the arterial wall begins to expand or dilate. When the artery bursts, tissues can get damaged because the oxygenated blood doesn’t get to them and there can be massive internal bleeding that may lead to death. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), is excessive buildup of fluid in the lungs or organs due to inadequate pumping in the heart. The fluid leads to swelling that clog the organs. Mechanical malfunctions of the heart is when there is a lack of oxygen to the myocardium that leads to the inability of the heart to pump or contract in an area.
They provide the body with glucose, which converts to energy and helps to support the body 's functions functions along with physical activities. The healthiest way to consume carbohydrates are unprocessed whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and beans. They help by giving nutrients and vitamins
Varicose Veins Overview- A varicose vein (or varicose veins) is the abnormal dilation of the veins that appear swollen and that sometimes, when the varicose vein involves a superficial vein, can be observed through the skin. In our body the arteries carry oxygenated blood to the rest of the body from the heart, the veins, however, return the oxygen-poor blood to the heart because it is pushed towards the lungs and oxygenated. The arteries, which push oxygenated blood, they have a very effective muscle layer, which carries blood to the pressure or heart but not so the veins, which carry blood to low pressure.
The patient’s autonomic nervous system would react to the arrow attack by activating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The brain sends a stress signal throughout the body and the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. These glands respond by pumping the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline into the blood. Epinephrine starts to go throughout the body, the heart starts to beat faster-pushing blood to the muscles, heart, and other organs. Your pulse and blood pressure go up, and you will start to breathe more rapidly.
Why is this so? It is because a higher amount of force is needed to be exerted to move the water through the small pipe as compared to the larger pipe. The more water to be transported, the higher the pressure is needed. So in the arteries of the human being, if its pathway is blocked by fatty deposits, the walls becomes smaller and the heart has to pump a higher amount of pressure to get the blood flowing through, resulting in hypertension. In order to check if a patient is suffering from hypertension or abnormal levels of blood pressure, there are four indirect and non-invasive methods to assess the patient.
Backwards cardiac effects increase hydrostatic pressure, causing fluid filtration into the lungs, resulting in impaired alveolar gas exchange and oedema in the lung. Thus, causing reduced oxygen saturation and crepitation as alveoli pop open after being collapsed by oedema (Murray,
The narrowing of these arteries can lead to weakening of the left ventricle due to the increased workload; eventually the left ventricle cannot effectively pump, resulting in blood backing up into the lungs. The fluid is then forced into the blood, through the capillaries and into the alveoli; this is known as congestive heart failure (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Another cause of cardiogenic pulmonary edema is cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy also causes a weakening in the ventricles. Unlike coronary artery disease which is a result of the narrowing of the arteries, cardiomyopathy is caused by damage to the cardiac muscle (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
The dilation of the blood vessels will increase the demand for oxygen which then will cause the respiratory system to raise the respiration rate in order to bring in more oxygen which then results to shortness of breath (SOB). Also, the change in the blood vessels will be picked up by the stretch receptors in the heart which will cause the heart to beat with more pressure and to beat faster. Although these common are seen through many Atrial Fibrillation patients. A variety of patients with Atrial Fibrillation doesn’t experience any of the symptoms that are listed above. These patients just tend to show no symptoms of Atrial Fibrillations until they undergo a variety of tests and procedures that is used in order for a patient to be diagnose with Atrial
Introduction to Atrial Fibrillation The most prevalent clinical arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which can be defined as irregular heart beats caused by uncoordinated activation of the atria. Atria are the two upper chambers of the heart. During atrial fibrillation, the cardiac muscles that make up the walls of these atrial chambers, receive disorganized activation signals. This causes them to fibrillate, which means rapid and irregular contractions. This results in inefficient pumping of blood from the atria into the ventricles, the lower two chambers.
The blood seeps in the sinusoids on its way to the hepatic veins, and then to the vena cava. This filtration is ideal for hepatocytes to filter the blood, process and store nutrients, cleanse, and remove debris. 6. Cirrhosis leads to scarring and increased hydrostatic pressure in the hepatic portal vein. Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen).
Right-sided heart failure is when the cardiac muscle on the right side of the heart becomes too weak to pump a sufficient amount of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. It is usually a complication of various conditions including lung diseases such as emphysema. This means that less oxygenated blood is taken from the lungs by the pulmonary veins and transported to the left side of the heart to then be pumped around the body. It can also produce a back-up of blood in the vessels within the body. This failure to pump sufficient blood to the lungs results in a build-up of fluid, which is known as oedema.