Using sufficient amount of lime (to provide enough alkalinity), compaction of the soil to high density and prompt placement after mixing lime with soil (to minimize carbon dioxide penetration) can minimize potential carbonation problems. In a lime treated soil, if sulfates are present in the soil or water, then these sulfates may react with alumina released from clay and calcium from lime to form ettringite (Ca6[Al(OH)6]2. (SO4)3.26H2O) (Mohamed, 2000). Ettringite has the capability of imbibing large volumes of water and dramatically increases the swelling potential of the lime-stabilized soil. It would be prudent to test and understand whether lime, soil, and sulfate swell or not when mixed and exposed to moisture, if sulfates are present where lime stabilization is
To accomplish this purpose, the fluid should have adequate suspension properties to make sure that cuttings made during drilling procedure and commercially added solids, such as barite or bentonite weighing material, do not settle during static intervals. Moreover, the bit and drillstring rotate at relatively high revolutions per minute (RPM) during actual drilling operations. The circulation of drilling fluid through the drillstring and up the wellbore annulus makes it easy to reduce friction and cool the drillstring. The drilling fluid also provides a quiet reasonable degree of lubricity to help the movement of the drillpipe. To maintain abovementioned function drilling mud must be of sufficient density or mudweight.
One major component of cements is Calcium Oxide, it is responsible for improving the durability or textile strength of the material. Sulfate attack is the main problem in the durability of cements since marine environment contains sulfate that may cause loss of its durability. Over the past decades, the durability of cements that are use in our infrastructures were still being tested. The durability of our houses, roads, bridges and buildings depend on the quality of cement that is use. .
Mortar is a workable paste of cement, sand and water which is used to fill the irregular gaps, voids and bind the masonry units together. The cement mortar is also used in plastering of wall structures in order to give a smooth finish and protect the structure. But cement plaster possesses low strength, absorbs more water and large number of pollutants from the atmosphere and deteriorate the structure which leads to surface cracks and damping. Thus in order to suppress these defects, cement plaster is added with nanomaterial and pozzolanic materials. The aim of this thesis is at making and studying the different strength properties of cement mortar and modified mortar.
There are several types of reinforced gravity walls such as: i) Concrete cantilever gravity wall: A wall that is connected to its foundation is called a cantilever wall. It is important to design this structure very carefully since it with holds a lot of soil. This type of wall lies on a slab foundation, which is in turn, loaded by the weight of the soil behind it along with the surcharge to prevent the wall from overturning and sliding. ii) Counter-fort/Buttressed retaining wall: A counter-fort wall is a type of cantilever wall strengthened with counter-forts formed of the same the same block of stone as the back of the wall and base slabs. The counter-forts reduce bending and shearing stresses and are considered tension stiffeners.
However, rebars generally need protection against water and corrosion, which cannot be affected their durability and that can be obtained by overcoming the concrete porosity and crack grith. The former can be achieved by adopting a cementitious matrix and water/ cement ratio. The later can be obtained by using fibre reinforced concrete and Steel Fiber reinforced concrete, which
Properties of metal mesh may be enhanced by a process called sintering, which compact metal mesh by heat or pressure without melting it. Sintered wire mesh laminate can be designed with a wide range of desirable mechanical properties, pore sized and permeabilities. Shrouded metal mesh screens are suitable for wells with unconsolidated or fine particle formation. They have high erosion and plugging resistant, prevent fine sand particles from entering into the annular
This low permeability reduces the effects associated with the absorption of chemicals which include the corrosion of steel reinforcement and erosion of the concrete itself. This increases the repair cycle and lifespan of the concrete and the structure as a whole, while also creating the conditions that allow certain chemical reactions to occur that will help to heal or fill the cracks of the concrete
Advantages Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete 1. The application GFRC is a material that has multiple functions which can be used in the construction of trim, columns, balustrades, ornaments, pedaments, sills, copings, window and door surrounds, site furnishings and the others more. This is because GFRC is a lightweight product and easy to handle compared to the other normal concrete product.GFRC design is also easy to be formed, compared with the cast stone which is cast stone need to be vibrated in order to eliminate or reduce air and water that contained in the cast stone concrete. 2. The strength of GFRC GFRC is a product that has high tensile strength, which are indispensable in the construction of a stronger building.
Water pollution is arguably the most fundamental environmental issue in Malaysia, since the country 's pollution problems began with water pollution caused by the three industries which are tin mining, natural rubber, and palm oil (Japan, 1996). Sludge is the residue produced during wastewater treatment (J. Edwards, 2017). The amount of sludge from municipal and industry was increasing every years. Nowadays Malaysia with an average crude palm oil production is estimated produce 53 million tons per years total of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) (Ravindra Pogaku, 2015). These happen due to increasing of economic activities as well as manufacturing sectors.