The present study were novel in establishing that the unique power of dynamic assessment of phonological awareness might predict spelling performance independently of English learning experience. Most of previous studies revealed that a lack of language learning experience at the beginning of kindergarten could affect performance on evaluations of phonological awareness and lead to children being identified as at risk for reading disability (Bridges & Catts, 2011; Castles & Coltheart, 2004). There are three reasons that can be explained that why conducts a dynamic assessment of phonological awareness in EFL environment. First, few studies have assessed the validity of a dynamic phonological awareness in young EFL learners. A dynamic phonological awareness test may be a fair for these students, who would have performed poorly in static assessment and would have been misidentified as learning disabled simply due to
Campelle Ortiz (1991) affirms that the majority of the language students face a frightening level of anxiety specifically when they are expected to perform in FL/SL because of several reasons (psychological problems, fear of making mistakes) and it dependent on the learners differences generally that feeling is considered by the learners as an implicit problem which they sometimes are not aware that anxiety hold up their
2.2.1 Observation After assessing pupils’ written work, I noticed that the most common error in their writing occurred when they were writing simple sentences. Pupils tend to miss out or jumble up words in simple sentences. Sentence structure is one of the most disturbing mistakes that my pupils made as it could distort the meaning that they wished to convey. Different types of worksheet, such as sentence making and sentence rearrangement, have been provided yet the error remains the same. Picture 1: PS/RO/PP1 Picture 2: PS/RO/PP2 Picture 3: PS/RO/PP5 Pursuing this further, I noticed that pupils tend to avoid writing task as compared to other tasks related to listening, speaking and reading.
Chapter 2 Literature Survey 2.1 General Word sense disambiguation was one of the important problem during the early days of machine translation. WSD is the task to determine the proper meaning of word and use it in particular context. WSD can be considered as classication problem because the word senses can be the classes.Moreover the automatic classication techniques can be used to recognize and assign each occurrence of the word to classes from external knowledge sources. 2.2 Literature Review 1. Gaona, Gelbukh A Bandyopadhyay advocate to use knowledge based appraches for better word sense disambiguation.
Thus some form of instructional focus on linguistic features may be required to destabilize learners‟ interlanguage (Ellis, 2006). The positive role of FonF in second language acquisition (SLA) has often been recognized over the past two decades. Qin (2008) refers to a number of comprehensive reviews (e.g. Doughty & Williams, 1998; Ellis, 2002; Norris & Ortega, 2002) and indicates that such studies have demonstrated evidence that FonF facilitates second language (L2) learners‟ acquisition of target morpho-syntactic forms or features. He further maintains that current concern has shifted to what constitutes the most effective pedagogical techniques in specific classroom settings, considering the choice of linguistic forms, the explicitness, and the mode of instruction.
Besides, learners’ beliefs have been identified as an important individual difference variable influencing language learning process and outcomes (Dornyei, 2005), and one of the recognized as reliable and valid measurements to measure L2 learners’ learning belief is Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) developed by Horwitz (1988). BALLI is a 34-item questionnaire divided into five major areas of beliefs: 1) difficulty of language learning, 2) foreign language aptitude, 3) the nature of language learning, 4) learning and communication strategies, and 5) motivations and expectations. Over the years, the BALLI has been widely used to assess learners’ beliefs and proved its reliability (Nikitina & Furuoka, 2006). Yang (1992) investigated 505 ESL students at six Taiwanese universities to examine beliefs in language learning. The study adopted 34-statement foreign language BALLI and added one open-ended question.
Lastly, the position of participle or preposition can be move. In addition, Celce-Muricia and Larsen –freeman (1999) indicated that learning phrasal verbs are one of the most difficult for ESL because of their meanings and structures. The combination between each element in phrasal verbs could not help EFL learners understand the meanings clearly. Furthermore, Lightbrown (2000) studied about Classroom SLA research and second language teaching found that ESL learners lack of the foreigner environments of English conversation where can help them developing English phrasal verb outside the classroom. He recommended that students should learn phrasal verbs from movie, music, or in conversation that native speakers used in their language.
As an example for the grammatical discourse in the ELF invariant question tag they use only “aren’t you” anything else is irrelevant or excluded, another pronunciation discourse they pronounce the “th” as “z”. All of these exceptions are seen as mistakes for the native speakers, but as English becoming a global language the native speakers don’t own anymore. Some linguists agreed about “let it pass” strategy to solve the problem between the lingua franca users and the native (whom English is their mother tongue) to get each other. For example in the international call phones the international clients use this strategy in order to avoid the misunderstanding. Another feature of the ELF is accommodation is to adapt the speech and the behavior of the one you are speaking to.
ELF interactions often feature language innovations which would not be considered as correct in an English as a native language context. Pitzl who has investigated the use of idioms and metaphors by ELF speakers, states by paraphrasing Ehrenreich (2009: 140) that even though ELF speakers do not aim for a re-interpretation of English “they will not shy away from doing exactly this when context, communicative need or group appropriateness prompt them to do so”, thus this is representing an integral feature of every ELF interaction (Pitzl 2012: 39). Similarly, Jenkins, Cogo and Dewey (2011: 304) stress how “ELF is a means by which English is continually being re-enacted and reinvigorated through the inventiveness of its speakers as they respond
Skills Weakness Speaking Isabelle has typical French speaker of pronouncing vowels , the h ( sound ) the French way. She does not say the articles. The student also emphasising the wrong stress on the wrong syllable of a word Writing Isabelle is not able to write complete sentences, She is not able use capitals at the beginning of sentences Reading Isabelle is not able to read for detail and comprehension Listening She is not able to listen for detail as she finds reading the longer sentences