Cornell (2004) pointed out that autonomy and self –determination is the frequent goal of ethnic mobilizations (p. 245). In a cultural perspective, Guibernau (2006) argues that ethnic group demand self-rule in order to ‘to foster its distinct identity’ (p. 72-73). It may seem that such conflicts are common in multiethnic society where the existence of cleavages makes the formation of homogenous society very difficult. Furthermore, the establishment of a ‘national identity’ inevitably favor a certain faction of society that might cause uproar from other minority groups. We can therefore argue that “what matters is whether there is the perception of discrimination” (Cornell, 2004, p.
This is true when there is a lack of equal and fair treatment to all races in a nation. Conflict will be inevitable when there are deeply rooted divisions between two groups of people. However, this alone is not enough to cause conflict. It is with the help of poorly made governmental decisions and policies which discourage fairness in society, that conflict arises due to a minority group have anti-nationalistic sentiments. By singling out a certain group and creating
It is through culture that people are defined, and share particular value systems. “Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour, acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action. (1993, p. 36&37) Culture and society are closely related, society consists of people belonging to a particular culture which have a set of universal signs. Language, ideology, cultural products, institutions and organisations make up systemic parts of our culture For example art and classical music is representative of high culture it is through these cultural signifiers that individuals create meaning from their existence.
Culture is an umbrella term that covers almost every aspects of life. It includes different concepts when viewed from various perspectives. It can be described in individual level as well as communal level, though they are mutually dependent. An individual defines culture at the level of the community he or she follows the patterns of the society in which he or she lives. The culture of a community is defined by the living patterns of the members of the society.
2.1.2 Cultural Identity Theory The term cultural identity refers to an individual’s sense of self derived from formal or informal membership in groups that transmit and inculcate knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, traditions, and ways of life (Kim, 2002). At its core, CIT (Collier, 2005; Collier & Thomas, 1988) is concerned with cultural identity as the enactment, representation, and negotiation of social identifications by group members in a particular setting in ways that enabled and constrained by relational dynamics, macro context, and public discourses. CIT posits properties and processes associated with cultural identity enactment (e.g. avowal, ascription, and salience) Cultural identity has been defined as a particular aspect of identity, defined as “a social construct that affects how people behave and communicate” (Shin, 2003). People’s identity can be grouped under three categories: human, social, and personal.
Diversity can lead to discrimination when people, especially the majority group, adopt a generalised attitude and prejudgment towards minority groups, and view themselves as superior. When this prejudice is acted upon, minorities face oppression and discrimination – apart from limiting the opportunities available to them, this is also severely disadvantageous in day-to-day life. In turn, intergroup relations will become strained, which will ultimately cause segregation. An example of mainly violent conflict due to diversity in a nation-state is the unrest in Sri Lanka caused by tension between different ethnic groups, namely the Sinhalese and the Tamils. The Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils currently make up 74.9% and 11.2% of the population respectively, and even right now, inequality between these two groups is still a severe
Reports should be balanced, diverse and accurate, , as judged from an international perspective. A biased and parochial journalism can wreak havoc in our tightly linked global world. Unless reported properly, North American readers may be conditioned into hating the Middle East, and fear mongering may cause hate crimes in India over the issue of Pakistan. Narrow-minded, ‘patriotic’ media may propel populations into war. Journalism with a global perspective is needed to help citizens understand the daunting global problems of poverty, technological inequalities political instability and even environmental degradation.
and policy wins” (Defilippis & Anderson-Nathe, 110). The biggest cost of both types of activism is that their issues, goals, and focus may push away prospective supporters, because the approach may be too specific (or even too broad), which could cause donors to look somewhere else. This sense of identity found in almost all activist groups (especially minority political groups) can create problems as well as solve problems. All organizations know that identity categories are “Both necessary and dangerous distortions”, because a clear focus of who is considered a part of said identity can alienate as well as mobilize people. Basically, while a minority group needs to establish who they are organizing in order to recruit members, they need to be concerned with the large amount of people they are turning away.
Therefore, the influence that culture have in personality is the manner they learn, live and behave. There are two type of culture the universal and culture specific aspect. Some culture specific aspect corresponded to culture syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism and collectivism. There are different theories that believe that culture is something very important in personality. One of the effect of culture to personality is that people who born and bred in the same culture share common personality traits.
And if they get caught, they need to pay for the loss, which such losses can reach millions of rupiah. Anarchism is a shame. People have the mindset that supporters are identic with anarchism and unethical. People in society do not believe in supporters. They fear to be the victim of anarchism because of the situation around the stadium and the anarchic supporters that unsafe for others.