Europe, as a whole and from different points of view, as a political, cultural, or historical entity or even as a geographical location, was, and continues to be, now more than ever, one of the most controversial subjects throughout history that has many interpretations coming from different perspectives. Through the way one perceives that notion of Europe can be seen how he or she understands and identifies himself or herself in it. One of these interpretations is about europe’s fixed and stable meaning, its perfection in other words, that itself projects and successfully imposes through various mediums, such as education and language, family, religion, and sometimes even through arts and cinema. Another interpretation of europe, on the other
Accordingly, European governments essentially pronounced that Indigenous people groups were their subjects — and frequently uprooted and even oppressed. They assumed that it was their duty to lead the Indigenous individuals to a socialized European way of life. For instance, in the source it expresses, that the lives of Europeans were considerably more important than those of Indigenous individuals; the statement indiacts, while
The rise in the number of transactions between consumers and traders and the growing economic power of traders prompted the provision of safeguards in favour of purchasers . The European Community undertook to address those needs by developing its consumer protection policy. It covers a number of substantive and procedural law measures aiming to confer rights on individuals and providing them with the means to enforce those rights. Examples of remarkable legislation include measures prohibiting unfair contract terms, tools ensuring product-safety, measures against misleading advertising . Despite those substantive privileges, the losses incurred by consumers due to problems with purchased goods or services were estimated at 0.4% of EU GDP .
As Asim Karim quotes Vertovec (2010) in his article “Multiculturalism”: there has emerged in public discourse across numerous settings- especially in Europe- a broad backlash against multiculturalism. From the political Right many critics now see multiculturalism as a foremost contributor to social breakdown, ethnic tension and the growth of extremism and terrorism (cited in Karim 126). Kymlicka and other theorists of multiculturalism have claimed that antidiscrimination law falls short of treating members of minority groups as equals; because states cannot be neutral with respect to culture. Yet we can find state support for some cultural groups over others in culturally diverse societies. As Jeremy Waldron (1995, 100) argues, “We live in a world formed by technology and trade; by economic, religious, and political imperialism and their offspring; by mass migration and the dispersion of cultural influences.
Some claims that human rights are the production of the European civilization, where there are several declarations on rights and claim of individual rights. Hence, there may be an obstacle to fulfill human rights without a tradition of rights.4 One may argue, the universal human rights are being a new capitalism and would intervene state sovereignty, like the advocators of Asian values.5 Another in-between approach is to reconcile the tension between culture and human rights through a cross-cultural or intercultural dialog or a recognition of plurality,6 With the initial meaning of the UDHR, human rights is to ensure the basic rights list and to urge the states' duty for human rights. Interwoven the assurance of universal human rights with cultural diversity, a discussion on the barriers of human rights implement in different culture has been impeding.7 This model of debate on relativism and universalism is trying sidestep the barriers of implementing human
In addition, the union needs dialogue in the individual businesses . Although social dialogue is largely autonomous, the social partners have the critical responsibility of addressing the major structural challenges that face Europe in the future. So far, the many experiences of crisis has indicated the extent to which social dialogue can v be used in the alleviation of the effects of economic downturn, provision of resilience and stability, and the preservation as well as the enhancement of employee competitiveness . On the national level, social dialogue has gone a long way in addressing the employment crisis across many Europe countries . As will be seen in the discussion, the EU member states that have robust social dialogue techniques have successfully faced the economic crisis.
For generations human society has struggled with the battle of “us versus them”, the “us” typically representing white, European culture, and the “them” representing everyone else. Racism has been used as a tool to maintain this worldview and foster the dominance of white, European culture over all others. The practice of racism is given power as a result of society constructing criteria under which the discrimination of other people is rational and justified. This justification has its roots in religion, which then spread to biological reasoning, and presently focuses on cultural difference (Blaut, 1992, p.290). Racism is not a static concept society has left in the past; it is constantly changing and is therefore able to remain at the forefront
The White Book also formulates that alhought many European companies have world leadership in traffic management systems, logistics, infrastructure and manufacturing of transport equipment, the other world regions are still in progress too and so it is necessary to focus on sustainable growth. In that content it is clear that the transport infrastructure is not equally developed especially in the western and eastern part of the European Union. This brings increased pressure to governments on higher investments on freight corridors development. Indispensability is the reduction of administrative and operating costs, limited congestion, to ensure structural change and finally step by step make railway freight transport more competitive, especially for medium and long
Introduction Although European integration from mid 1940s has continuously forged a wide spectrum of unity among European states, the integration carries three institutional challenges towards the states. First, democratic legitimacy and sovereignty of European states are constrained due to political integration. As parliamentary sovereignty of a national parliament is contested by transfer of powers and the European Court of Justice (ECJ), its parliamentary supremacy diminishes. Second, a national government faces constant challenges from conflicting interests between the European Union (EU) and national governments over EU’s common policy. Third, economic integration carries major challenges towards a national treasury such as loss of full-autonomy over monetary policy and risk-sharing arrangement among the member states.
Second, is the rise of nationalism across the world, which was also affected UK, caused by EU beliefs that institutions such as NATO and IMF that created after World War II are no longer serve a purpose. This growing mistrust and fear of losing control created diversion, and made Brexit appears as the most reasonable solution for those who oppose EU 's