with the help of combination of two features like face and voice, face and fingerprint, fingerprint and speech, etc. The combination between features strengthens the information which improves efficiency in recognition of individuals than that of single source of information. The criteria considered in general biometric system are listed below: • Uniqueness: This means no two persons should have same in terms of the biometric characteristics either behavioral or physiological. Fingerprints have a high intolerance rate and the probability of two persons with the same iris is estimated as low as 1:1052. This may results in false detection in case of identical twins.
Today many biometric technologies such as face, iris, voice print and hand based biometrics traits (palm print or fingerprint) can be used to identify persons. Each biometrics has its advantages and defects; no single biometric can effectively meet all requirements like accuracy, practicality and cost of all applications (Maltoni, Maio, Jain, & Prabhakar, 2003). Some of the most frequently used biometric systems are shown in figure 1.2. Face Recognition (Li and Jain, 2005) identifies user or people by analyzing the unique features of the face, which are not changed during the lifespan of the person unless and until some real wound or damage occurs. The features include color of eye, color of skin, and nose shape and the upper outlines of the
The variation in face or unique features of the face such as distance between eyes, nose, mouths, ears, jaw, size of eyes, mouth and others expressions etc. helps us to uniquely identify each people individually. This uniqueness of our face is the key behind one of the most useful and reliable biometric security system face recognition. Biometric Face recognition technique works in several stages, first face is detected in a picture or image frame, then unique feature of that face is extracted and stored in database, later a face classifier is trained with those features to identify each individual, finally we use that trained classifier to identify any given face. Face recognition has several advantages over other biometric systems (fingerprint/iris) due to its non-contact process.
Based on normalized face image and facial feature locations derived from previous stages, a feature vector is generated from given face and compared with a database of known faces. If a close match is found, the algorithm returns the associated identity. A main problem in face identification is the large differences between face images from the same person as compared to those from different persons. Therefore, it is important to choose a suitable face classification technique that can provide a good separate ability between different persons. Face identification has a wide range of applications.
The cryptography also coordinates with decentralization because it enables more people to see that the blocks didn’t match up, meaning earlier detection. As mentioned earlier, a hash is the cryptographic code that protects a block and the chain. The hash is made from a scramble of data contained in the block that forms a code. “Cryptography is a long digital password with many complex symbols” (Bendor-Samuel). The hash can easily be made from the data but is virtually impossible to figure out the data from the hash, ensuring block and hash security.
Using gait as a biometric is a relatively new area of study, within the realms of computer vision. It has been receiving growing interest within the computer vision community and a number of gait metrics have been developed. Gait recognition is an emerging biometric technology which involves people being identified purely through the analysis of the way they walk. While research is still underway, it has attracted interest as a method of identification because it is non-invasive and does not require the subject’s cooperation. Gait recognition could also be used from a distance, making it well-suited to identifying perpetrators at a crime scene.
The captured her own biometric data compared with prestored biometric template that is already stored in database. In such system ,any person who wants to be recognized can claims an identity by a PIN(Personal Identification Number),a smart card, a user name, etc, and the claim is true or not true the system conducts one to one comparison. (e.g., “Does this biometric data belong to particular person who entered in system?”).In verification mode only the authorized people can access the system which has the unique ID. Aim of positive recognition is to protect the multiple people who have the same
The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed by a legitimate user, and not anyone else. Examples of these systems include secure access to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones and ATMs. In the absence of robust authentication schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Traditionally, passwords (knowledge-based security) and ID cards (token-based security) have been used to restrict access to systems. The major advantages of this traditional personal identification are that (i) They are very simple (ii) They can be easily integrated into different systems with a low cost.
Chapter-1 Introduction In this era of science and technology security plays a vital role in day today life. Security is the basic requirement for all the people starting from common people to VIP and VVIPs. These days human face recognition is most widely used technology and for also the core issue of security. The current security systems are using biometric recognition. Here in this system we are going to make such system that will take the pictures of human and it will match with the data base available and then that will be transferred to the server as our goal is to take attendance of the present students in the class.
1.2 THE FACE: The face is an important part of who you are and how people identify you. Except in the case of identical twins, the face is arguably a person's most unique physical characteristics. While humans have the innate ability to recognize and distinguish different faces for millions of years, computers are just now catching up. For face recognition there are two types of comparisons .the first is verification. This is where the system compares the given individual with who that individual says they are and gives a yes or no decision.