The two models of democracy compared and contrasted between various governmental institutions is the Majoritarian Model and the Consensus Model. To start off, democracy can be defined as: “political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty… it clearly emphasized individual freedom and is in keeping with the ideology of liberalism.” (O’Neil 128) Although both forms of democracy are in truth democracy, the argument is whether or not one system is more democratic than the other. When it comes to how the country is governed and how its laws are implemented, which is to demonstrate a more democratic idea of how democracy should be enforced. Majoritarian basically refers to governing by the majority
The Legislature: Government at every level has three arms or divisions, namely legislative, executive and judicial. The legislature is made up of members who are elected by the people. They make the laws that govern the people. The legislature at the federal level has two chambers or houses. These are the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Parliament sovereignty in its simplest form means the right to make, change or abolish any law (Haywood ???). Haywood (???) also discusses legal sovereignty as the ‘right’ to command obedience and political sovereignty as the ‘power’ to command obedience. Haywood goes on to discuss internal sovereignty as being the power authority within a given state such as the UK. External sovereignty would relate to the state/UK within the international spectrum and how the state uses its power to influence or be influenced by other states.
In the General Election, there are 222 federal parliamentary seats are being contested (Neoh, 2013). The elections in Malaysia are divided into two, which is the federal level and state level. The candidates of federal level fights for a seat in the House of Representatives which is also known as Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament while the candidates of states level are fight for the seat in State Legislative Assemblies which is also known as Dewan Undangan Negeri. In the State Legislative Assemblies, the party with majority of members in it would form the state government and automatically the leader of the party would become the Menteri Besar or Chief Minister (Neoh, 2013). Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy.
Q2. Foucault had defined governmentality as the art of government. That means the idea of government is not only limited to the state politics, but it includes controlling techniques in wide range and controlling of population. Foucault had linked governmentality to other concepts such as knowledge power and bio politics. Foucault says that governmentality develops a new understanding of power.
Union of South Africa 1910 The state was under a unitary state, whereby the parliaments of each colony were abolished and replaced with provincial councils. They then introduced a bicameral parliament, consisting of a house of assembly and a senate. Country’s white minority mostly elected the bicameral parliament members. 2, South African Republican Constitution of 1961 The structure of the government of the Republic under 1961 constitution was a Westminster system ran by a state president parliament. Westminster is a parliament system of government modeled after that, which developed in the United Kingdoms.
Constitutional history of India This paper is an attempt to survey the constitutional developments in colonial Indian history. A constitution can be defined as a set of legal norms, either codified or uncodified that determine the extent and scope of the powers of the state. It gives the state it’s structure and form and strives to curtail arbitrary action to foster a legal environment where rule of law is above the rule of men. Before the advent of British colonial rule, the subcontinent was rules by a number of states that were absolute monarchies. Under an absolute monarchy there are no limits on the power of the Monarch, any limitations that the sovereign might encounter would be rooted in realpolitik and not in an inherent rule of law
Election and Election process caters to the spirit of democracy that has is principle origin in Preamble. We, the people of India indicate the source from which the Constitution comes. It declares the great rights and freedoms which the people on India intend to secure to all citizens and basic type of government and polity which has to be established . Both the word ‘republic’ and ‘democratic’ appear in Preamble, the word ‘republic’ indicate that the head of State is not a hereditary monarch. In the ‘republic’ the political sovereignty vests with the people and the head of State is only a person elected by the people for a fixed term.
The Indian Electoral system has been broadly divided into two categories, they are direct elections based on territorial constituencies and proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. The first system is followed for the election of the members of Lok Sabha, State Assemblies and Union Territories’Assemblies. The second elections are held on the basis of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote for the President and the Vice-President of India, members of Rajya Sabha and members of Legislative councils. The main features of the Indian electoral system: 1. Elections are held on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise.
Secondly, the council of the state which is also known as the Rajyasabha/Upper House, is the permanent house of the parliament consists of 250 members wherein the 12 members shall be nominated by the president and the remaining members shall be the representatives of the states and the union territories. The representatives of the states are elected by the members of the legislative assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the members from the union territories shall be chosen in such a manner as the parliament by law provides. The numbers of the seats allocated to the states and the union territories are provided under the fourth schedule of the constitution of India. The 12 members chosen by the presidents from among the persons having special knowledge or practical experience in the field of science, art and the social service. Thirdly, the House of the people also known as Loksabha/Upper House of the parliament consists of 550 members wherein 530 members are elected by the votes in the states and the 20 members shall represent the union territories chosen in such manner as parliament may by law