DESIGNING WIRELESS GAS DETECTION AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Prof Dr Dogan Ibrahim of the Near East University in Cyprus describes the basic principles of gas sensors and shows how a wireless gas sensor system can be designed INTRODUCTION Gas detector systems are mainly used to sense the presence of gas leak in an area and then take some action, such as automatically shut down the source of the gas, or sound an alarm to inform the people in the area where the gas leak is occurring. Common gas detectors used at homes sense potentially hazardous gas leaks such as the carbon monoxide and then sound an alarm to alert the people at home that hazardous gas has been detected so that doors and windows can be opened, the source of the gas can be shut if possible, and people are alerted early enough so that they can leave the area. There are many life threating toxic
EXPERIMENTAL Mass transfer tests The mass transfer tests in the test reactor (2 L Büchi autoclave) where conducted using an indirect (chemical) method. The experimental procedure (detailed in Section 6.1.3) consisted of filling the reactor with approximately 1.2 mol/L sodium sulfite solution containing 1-5 mg/L cobalt(II) ion, turning on the oxygen supply and starting the time. The oxidation reaction was allowed to continue for a predetermined time agitation was started and samples taken at regular time intervals. Each sample was mixed with excess standard iodine solution and titrated with standard sodium thiosulfate solution (Na2S2O3) using a starch indicator. The reactions are (Jeffrey et al., 1989): 〖"SO" 〗_"3" ^"2-" "+ " "I" _"2" "+
The systems are the Control Mode System (Conventional) and Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) System. (An Introduction to Early Suppression Fast Response Sprinklers, 2008). One major different between this two sprinkler system is their design intent. Control mode sprinkler systems focused more on controlling the fire until the fuel source is depleted or the fire is extinguished by the fire-fighter. The fire is done by cooling the air temperature of the ceiling-level, reducing the fire heat release rate and pre-wetting surrounding combustibles.
It is to prevent the cell from washing away during the staining and washing process. Then, it is air dried and followed by fixing it with flame from Bunsen burner. After fixing the smear, it must be stained using Gram staining solution, firstly crystal violet solution was flood onto it, and allowed for 1 minute, then wash off with tap water. Then, flood the slide with iodine solution for 1 minute and wash it off with tap water again. The formation of a dye-iodine complex will occur in the cytoplasm.
For controlling the heating temperature of the catalyst presence in a reactor is done by a micro-processor based temperature controller. The gaseous products are produced after the oxidation reaction in a reactor is analysis by an online gas chromatogram (Nucon series 5765) equipped with a porapack q-column, FID detector and a methaniser for measuring of the concentration of CO and CO2. The oxidation of CO at any instant was calculated on the basis of concentration CO in the feed and product stream by the following equations: (XCO) = [(CCO)in - (CCO)out ] / [CCO]in = [(ACO)in - (ACO)out ] / [ACO]in --------------- (2) Where, the concentration of CO is proportional to the area of chromatogram ACO. The overall concentration of CO in the inlet stream is proportional to the area of CO2 chromatogram. 3.
4. Check to make sure plant is secured before leaving the premise. 3-2.2 BACKWASH SYSTEM Backwashing of the filter consists of up flow water wash followed by a rinse cycle. Backwashing is normally run automatically by setting the timer at predetermined interval to activate backwash cycle. The filter can also be manually backwashed.
A control system manages, commands, directs or adjusts the behavior of other devices or systems. It can range from a home heating controller using a thermostat controlling a local boiler to large Industrial control systems which are used for controlling procedures or machines. In the most common form, the feedback control system it is chosen to control a process, called the plant, so its output follows a control signal, which may be a fixed or altering value. The control system compares the output of the plant to the control signal, and applies the difference as an error signal to bring the output of the plant closer to the control signal. The term control system may be applied to the basically manual controls that allow an operator, for example,
Identify the steps in geothermal power plant by choosing the words from the word bank. ( i want to edit the pix, putting a rectangle per number) Chapter Summary Heat is a form of energy that comes from many different sources and is used to produced steam. The steam produced exerts pressure and expands in the cylinders of a steam engine or steam turbine. Then, the expansion of steam turbine is translated into work. Fuel oils like gasoline are vaporized in internal combustion engines and ignited automatically producing heat, which is then translated into work.
Smoke, gas and Humidity can also be detected while extinguishing. The LM35 sensors and ultrasonic sensor are used with Multi Sensor Detection System (MSDS) to provide a extinguishment platform and the parameters are updated to the respected person through IoT. When the fire is detected and robot is at nearer distance to fire, a solenoid valve pump is used to sprinkle water for extinguishment. For an effective extinguishing, a water spreader is used. This Holocaust Conflict Robot is enhanced with dual conditions.