Therefore, overfishing could also be the reason for the decrease is the population of oceanic animals such as sharks, dolphins, tuna, and whales in other parts of the world. Undeniably, fishing is a active source of employment and income for many communities globally. In many developing countries fish is an essential source of food security due to the poverty (Pelle, 2014). In addition to the ever-increasing worldwide demand for fish, overexploitation of fisheries is the order of the day. Moreover, numerous unwanted fish and sea animals die unnecessarily in the course of the fishing process annually.
Firstly, if species are excessively harvested, which only juvenile fish below reproductive age are left in the ocean, it would take a long time for them to reproduce, thus reducing their population sustainability. Not only would it affect human, but also other species and larger marine animals that share the same habitat. A representative example would be The U.S. Pacific sardines, which population has declined an estimated 90 percent since 2007 (Grossman 2015), and evidence showed that overfishing worsens the magnitude and frequency of the cyclical declines of sardines and other forage fish. (Essington 2015). Sardines are at the bottom of food web, therefore, decline in sardine quantities would affect other species along the food web, for example, whales, dolphins and other species that feed on sardines.
Moreover, its supply chain initiatives are expected to deliver around $2.00 billion of net savings on annual run rate basis. Its supply chain initiatives such as rate reductions, greater equipment standardization, project re-scoping, and timing optimization are enabling the company to better negotiate cost reductions from suppliers. More importantly, the company is reducing its operating costs. CVX has reduced its operating as well as G&A costs by over 12% in the third-quarter to $6.6 billion from $7.5 billion last year. Also, it lowered its exploration expenses to $315 million, a reduction of 14% as compared to $366 million last year.
Fish is the main source of protein for large parts of the population in certain areas of the world, where other sources of food are scarce, and it is a highly valued nutrition source in the developed world for its healthy dietary qualities. Based on the high demand, it has become a profitable business, and the scale of fishing has reached unsustainable levels. Fish is an example of r-strategists and since they produce huge amounts of offspring, for many years people used to believe that the amount of fish in the seas has no limits. However, their decline starts being more and more obvious over time. Overfishing happens when people catch fish faster than the speed of reproduction.
Jennen et al. (2007) identify it as the so-called drip loss. Drip loss is widely considered being one of the most important technological quality attributes of fish products. For one thing, drip loss can affect undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics of fish, e.g. appearance, juiciness, texture, and flavor (Huff-Lonergan and Lonergan, 2005; Kristoffersen et al.,
The most common example of overharvesting is fishing. Many fishing companies over fish so that their income is larger. Over fishing has played an important role in the extinction of many species. The unsustainable extraction of species had three main problems – too many people want the resource, the short term profit goals and life histories of populations being harvested. (Grobeman, 2013) Pollution from humans has also greatly impacted the environment.
Pond fish culture system is one of the common agricultural techniques in the present. Pond fish culture also a profitable aquaculture practice like as Shrimp of giving foreign exchange. But anyway, it also depends on the culturing fish species (Akankali et al, 2011). According to the Edirisinghe (2009), Ponds are the aquatic water resources which are the sizes below 3ha (In an aspect of Sri Lanka). The water level of ponds also should be near to the ground level.
Crab aquaculture started in the 1990s associated with Negombo lagoon and small shrimp farm stated in 1977 associated with Batticaloa lagoon. Early 1990s aquaculture started as a slow growth. But with the public attraction uncontrollable and rapid expansion of Shrimp aquaculture was distributed during 1992-1996. From 1996 shrimp industry affected by the disease outbreaks and environmental issues restricted to the narrow belt approximately with 120 km by 10 km in the North Western Province. After the collapse of aquaculture due to the lack of proper low, illegal farming, unorganized farming, the disease started to grow slowly from 2004(Asbjorn, 2013).
The quality of shrimp feeds is the primary factor that influence the shrimp growth. Due to this reason, there is an increase interest in researching sustainable feed ingredients for optimal growth (Ochoa-Solano & Olmos-Soto, 2006). The shrimp feeds should maintain its integrity in water, hence the entire feed is consumed by the shrimps. Feeds for finfish (salmon and tilapia) need to be stable in the water for only few minutes as they are fast feeders (Strorebakken, et al., 1999). On the other hand, shrimp feeds need to be stable in the water for a long time since shrimp is a slow continuous eater (Farmanfarmaian, et al., 1982).
INTRODUCTION Fishery resources are important source of dietary proteins in most coastal communities in Nigeria and the world at large. This may be why, fishers with considerable levels of farming activities have settled close to natural water bodies for food and material supplies. The Bonny Estuary is one of the most important river systems in the Niger Delta, providing nursery and breeding grounds for a large variety of fish. Fishing in the estuary is intense and catch per unit effort is low. Due to the nation’s efforts towards speedy industrialization and other human activities, the river is fast becoming degraded.