The musculoskeletal system is composed of muscles, bones, joints.Joint composed of muscles, tendons, bursae, etc., so it will produce and facilitate movement of mechanical forces acting around the fulcrum (the joint) to perform the desired motion. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint. Hip joint is capable of complex motions (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation). The Clinical examination tests, are not very specific for many diagnoses but although it is helpful. There are many specialized tests can be performed on the hip to determine specific abnormalities so it will lead to produce a malfunction.
The knee joint is one of the strongest and most important joints in the human body. It allows the lower leg to move relative to the thigh while supporting the body’s weight (Taylor, n.d.) as knee joint is one of the major weights bearing joint in the body. Knee joint plays an important role in our daily lives such as walking, running, sitting and standing. It allows physiological movement such as flexion and extension. The knee joint is also known as tibiofemoral joint.
Knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint in the human body. It is a remarkable joint by engineering standards; there is no engineering bearing that resembles it either in construction or in the complexity of its geometry . The knee has very effectively evolved to move from 0o extension to 135o flexion together with 20o to 30o rotation of the flexed leg on the femoral condyles. The knee is used for everything from standing up, sitting, walking, running, etc. It’s a weight-bearing joint that straightens bends, twist and rotates.
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament. It inserts in the linea alba, by an aponeurosis that fuses with the weakly developed dorsal leaf of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique to form the dorsal wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 INTRODUCTION Every joints at our body are very important for us to make a movement. Problem related to joint must be prevented as early as possible. Joint hypermobility one example of the problem related to joint and can give long term effect (Bird & Barton, 1993). Joint hypermobility also known as hypermobility syndrome, benign hypermobility syndrome, articular hypermobility, joint laxity and joint hyper laxity (Russek, 1999). It is generally defined as range of movement is greater than normal and increase mobility or looseness of the joint (Wolf, Cameron, & Owens, 2011, Engelsman, Klerks, & Kirby, 2010) According to Russek (1999), as health teams, some knowledge regarding this condition must be spread to
Physiology of Skeletal Muscles L. D.G. Valerio, C. M. Villegas, R. H. Vito, L. R. Zamora Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, Philippines Keywords Skeletal Muscles, Twitch, Kymograph, Fatigue, Ringer’s solution Summary The experiment was conducted to be able to determine the effect of graded response, load, pules, frequency, tetanus and muscles fatigue on the contraction of the muscle, specifically the gastrocnemius, by doing the procedures and a series of experiments to get various data. Introduction First we ask the question, what is a kymograph? A kymograph is a device used for recording variations in pressure such as in sound waves, blood pressure and etc. by the trace
Stretch and tension filled with muscle pain due to some difficult posture remains. Superior Training: If you do the exercises with superior training then the pain in your muscles may be reduced. The best cause of muscle spasms is to push your body or body organs out of their capacity. Trainer will give you the right tips from which you will be able to stay away from the cramps that arise in your muscles. How to face
Coordination is a complex skill that requires not only good balance, but good levels of other fitness components such strength and agility. Component: Muscular strength Definition: The maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single maximum contraction • Strength is vital for optimal force production as it is a determinant of speed. • Most sport specific movements are explosive and must include elements of both strength and speed if they are to be effective. • Strength development engages nerve fibers, which is one factor that will also increase the development of muscle hypertrophy. • Strength adaptations are training specific.
It may be stretched or torn be due to twisting or pulling of a muscle or tendon. It might been caused by a recent injury, lifting of heavy object such as the backpack the wrong way or overstressing the muscle from hiking. Common sites for a strain are the back and the hamstring muscle in the back of the thigh. When strained, one may feel pain, muscle spasms or weakness, swelling, cramping, trouble moving the muscle. If the muscle or tendon is torn completely, it will cause great pain and will be difficult to move it.