The adsorption of water started from the moisture content of 13–15 % at 0.1 water activity and ended at 98–105 % at 0.9 aw. Since the pumpkin structure has 0.26 % of proteins (amino acid) and fat which can eventually oxidize upon absorbing moisture at water activity 0.4 (Labuza et al,. 1972), the relative humidity must be below 20 % according to Fig. 2. The freeze–dried pumpkin powder showed a similar adsorption–desorption trend to other fruits and vegetables such as raspberry (Syamaladevi et al,.
High fructose corn syrup is basically a corn syrup in which enzymes have been additional to alteration selected of the glucose to fructose and creation the product syrup sweeter than corn syrup. In this report I will cover basic ideas and information related to high fructose corn syrup, physical and chemical properties of HFCS. There are many manufacturer process, that used corn syrup as an raw material, and HFCS used in many food stuffs for developing better taste, odor and flavor. In the middle section of this report I will show the process flow diagram of the process that uses starch as an raw material for the production of HFCS. At the end of this report I will cover up, how environment affected due to the production of HFCS, and what are
A. Chickpea starches The chickpea is higher in carbohydrates than other pulses. Chickpea contains monosaccharides (0.7% glucose, 0.25% fructose, 0.11% ribose and 0.05% galactose,), disaccharides (1-2% sucrose and 0.6% maltose) as well as oligosaccharides (raffinose). Oligosaccharides cannot be absorbed or hydrolyzed by the human digestive system however they are fermented by colonic bacteria to release gases or flatulence. Gas production is greater after chickpea consumption compared with other pulses, and this could be due to an important content of oligosaccharides in chickpea . Nutritionally, Kabuli chickpeas are a little bit higher in total sugar (mono-, di- and oligosaccharides), compared with Desi chickpeas .
Eating is differentiated from feeding by the ways how human acquire food. Humans gather nuts or fruits from trees, or hunt animals in forest, but they also grow plants and raise livestock. The appearance of agriculture lights up the possibility in regulating some food accessibility .This allowed the development of specific customs connected to foods that are the essentials of diet, such as wheat or rice. Humans also cook, softening tough foods, including raw grains and meats, and reducing toxic substances in other items, such as certain root vegetables. This greatly expands the number and variety of edible substances available (Counihan .C, Esterik .P.V, 2007).
The fungal cultures which grown earlier on Petri dishes were transferred to the rice (2 Petri-dishes/plastic bag) under sterilized conditions. The bags then closed and kept under 25-30°C for 15 days. After that the rice was dried on strengthening paper and then grinded. Then 50 grams of ground rice inoculated with Conidiospores of, T. album fungi was added to (1 kg) of wheat. Each gram of rice powder loaded with fungus contained (7x107 conidia /ml) which considered the highest concentration that gave the highest mortality rate in previous bioassay experiment, then the treated wheat with T. album in addition to control wheat were infested with an insect, R. dominica an early stage of the infection and stored in plastic jars (1 liter) covered with muslin cloth at 25±1 ºC and 80-90% RH for six months.
Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added. During this reaction, urea is the product formed (Nelson and Cox 2008). Figure 1 shows the urea cycle, occurs specifically in the mitochondria and cytosol in the liver. (Nelson and M.Cox 2008). Urea is made in the liver by means of enzymes in the urea cycle.
Soaking and germination decreased the fat and fiber, whereas roasting alone increased the fiber, ash, carbohydrate contents. Odiba (2011) analyzed raw and toasted (at 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes) soyabeans for dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract. The crude protein in raw soybean decreased with increase in toasting
Starchy plant foods-Cereals, Tubers and Roots • Cereals and legumes: Cereals and legumes are important contributors of carbohydrates and proteins to the diet. The traditional methods for fermenting cereals and legumes are simple and inexpensive. However, these methods are changing rapidly through modern microbial technology. Soybeans, black grams, mung beans, and Bengal gram are the principal legumes, and rice is the main cereal used in the preparation of a variety of fermented foods in different parts of the world. • Roots and
Vinegar is essentially a dilute solution of acetic acid, made by a fermentation processes, containing salts and extracted matter. These additional substances, the exact nature and quantity of which depend upon the material used, give the product its distinctive quality. Sugar is the base of vinegar production. Any watery solution of a fermentable sugar may be transformed into vinegar under favourable conditions. All vinegar is made by two distinct biochemical processes, both of which are the result of the action of microorganisms.
Due to their low water levels, they are microbiologically stable much longer than bread or cakes. There is a growing interest in high fibre diets, which are important in prevention and management of chronic diseases such as obesity, (colonic) cancer and coronary heart disease (Kendall, Esfahani, & Jenkins, 2010). Cookies refers to a baked product generally containing the three major ingredients; flour, sugar and fat. They have low final water contents (1-5%) (Pareyt & Delcour et al., 2008). Most biscuits and cookies are chemically leavened baked products (Dogan et al., 2006).