It is hard for them to keep both voices alive in America because they never get the opportunity to learn Arabic in school, but are rather taught English and Spanish in high school. Rather than these Sudanese kids saying; this “is my only voice” (Speaking in Tongues), we should teach their native language rather than make them take on a big piece of responsibility in life. Having only a couple
The lack of proper pronunciation causes problem for students in real life communication. On the other hand, most students believe that if they are better in pronunciation, they will be more confidence in English. It is also seen that generally pronunciation is neglected in classrooms. Even if pronunciation is taught with considerable amount of time, students should practice individually. Practicing only in classroom is not enough for achieving desirable
The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
In essence, chunking is established as one of the mechanisms for human cognition process. It is crucial in explaining the relationship between the external environment and the internal cognitive processes (Reed, 2010). Empirical evidence in support of the relevance of chunking theory exists, especially in relation to the way that humans perceive words, paragraphs and words as single units, overshadowing their representation as comprising of collections of phonemes or letters. For example, the chunking theory explains how skilled readers have a tendency to be insensitive to deleted or repeated words. Studies that use information concerning timing of responses to ascertain the presence of chunks exemplifies evidence on the relevance of the chunking theory are particularly useful in understanding effectiveness.
Children start learning their parent’s language long before they say their first word. Although newborn babies can differentiate the different sounds in the many different languages, by the age of one to one and a half, they lose this ability and start to make the sounds of their community. So maybe babies are not blank slates when they are born, perhaps they are a book filled with the world’s languages, and as children grow older and start to learn the language of their community, they start erasing pages of sounds that are not used in their community. So babies are born knowing more about languages than the adults in their
Interlanguage theory Before going to the other concerns, first we will have a look at the Interlanguage Theory as it is very important in the second language with relation to SLA. The term interlanguage was used by Selinker (1972) when he described the rules of structure at the Intermediate grammar level given for the learners of second language to achieve their target language. In spite of the inadequacy of the nature of this grammar, Selinker says that it makes a unity of the whole as this grammar is driven through many psychological mechanisms and it is not developed in the natural way. Adjemian presented Selinker's philosophy with some modification that the second language learner can use the rules of L1 in the L2 if the learner gets such
When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
It is indeed essential to learn grammar rules and develop basic writing skills, but not at the expense of integrating students’ cultural identity in the learning process and in-class discussions. The classroom is where the 2nd phase of early socialization begins. As early as kindergarten, diversity in the classroom is created by children and teachers sometimes fail to understand that no two children are the same. Cultural identity is barely promoted, as the mainstream English encompasses most aspects of education. In the article, “Preserving the Cultural Identity of English Language Learner”, Sumaryono and Ortiz argued that in the classroom, students can become disconnected and feel abandoned if the teacher doesn’t express any sort of sensitivity towards their cultural identities (16).
So being Swager 2 suddenly thrust into a new school, new kids I didn’t know, and not to mention a secondary language, this is where my fear of writing started, or my lack of confidence with this subject. When I need to write any kind of a paper, I need total isolation to concentrate without any noise or distraction. It takes me probably longer than most to complete a paper, but this is the main reason for my fears. I first try to get all my thoughts in my head before starting to write, but once my fingers touch a keyboard, all my thoughts change, and the information starts to flow freely. I never really liked to write on paper, because I was always second guessing myself, and I would be forever scratching out what I just wrote.
These tests show students that there is only one, specific answer to every problem. But often life’s problems are very complex have more than one solution, unlike the multiple choice format of the tests. In today’s world there are new issues that arise every day and we have to get creative with some of these solutions, but standardized testing is not helping with this (Dagget and Sconzo 1). As long as standardized tests are still being used in schools children will continue to learn that every issue in life only has one solution and when they grow older that won’t have the problem solving skills they need. Although reading and writing are very important for students to learn and they will continue to need thee skills throughout life, standardized tests do not help students learn speech and communication skills which are widely used in the job force.