Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia. Primary polycythemia is caused by unregulated erythrocyte production. Polycythemia may occur because of hypoxia. When this occurs the body senses low oxygen levels and produces more erythrocytes to carry more oxygen to the body
But there is a very important fact about blood alcohol concentration is that when the amount of alcohol in the body increases , the proportion eliminated in an hour decreases. Let P be the proportion of alcohol broken down in a given hour and a be the number of grams of alcohol in the body at the beginning of the hour then P = 10/(4.2+a) This is called Capacity-limited
The pleural space begins to fill causing the-the mediastinum to maneuver around, which can lead to disruption of the airflow and pulmonary circulation. Once the air circulation is disrupted the patient begins to compensate. Tension pneumothorax can be misleading if not realizing to symptoms. A patient with tension pneumothorax is going to have chest pain caused by the lung collapsing. The patient will experience respiratory distress causing the patient to breath faster because they are not getting the proper amount of oxygen, respiratory distress can lead to altered mental status and diminished breath
When diarrhea ensues, body fluid and electrolytes are eliminated by the body before they are adequately absorbed. Dehydration is the state wherein the person's ability to take in fluids is not quick enough to replace the losses from the diarrhea. Most mortalities from diarrhea occur in the extremes of ages: either the very young or the very old. Diarrhea can be categorized in several types. Chronic diarrhea is the type of diarrhea that occurs for more than two weeks; gastroenteritis, or what is more commonly known as stomach flu, where there is associated vomiting; acute gastroenteritis is the type where there is inflammation of the bowels; and lastly, dysentery, where there is blood, pus or mucus in the stool.
These blood vessels usually nourish the retina. These blood vessels get blocked which causes irregular new blood vessels to form. Bleeding into the vitreous gel may occur due to these new blood vessels being weak. Retinal detachment may also occur because of these new blood vessels pulling on the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment in middle aged people and visual loss in older people.
A pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest wall or as a complication of a healthcare intervention which is referred to as traumatic pneumothorax. In a minority of cases the amount of air in the chest increases markedly when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a tension pneumothorax which leads to steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure. Unless reversed by effective treatment, it can result in death. Diagnosis of a pneumothorax by physical examination alone can be difficult. Integrated diagnostic modalities can be used for the better detection such as chest X-ray,
2.9. Estimation of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 10 213 The concentration of H2O2 was determined by the method of Okuda et al (38). Fresh leaf 214 sample (0.5 g) was grounded in ice-cold 200 mM HClO4 and was then centrifuged at 215 1200 g for 10 min followed by neutralization of HClO4 of the supernatant with 4M KOH. 216 The insoluble KClO4 was eliminated by further centrifugation at 500g for 3 min. In a 217 total volume of 1.5 mL, the reaction mixture contained 1 mL of the eluate, 400 mL of 218 12.5 mM 3-(dimethylamino) benzoic acid in 0.375 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 80 mL 219 of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone and 20 mL of peroxidase (0.25 unit).
Causes: kidney disease, smoking, alcohol and diet. Effects: angina, strokes and heart attacks. Describe the condition Hypotension: This is consistent low blood pressure that remains below the normal level of 120/80. Causes: temporary shock, hemorrhage, dehydration, anemia and allergic reaction. Effects: dizziness, poor balance, fainting, confusion and disorientation.
Dry eye syndrome, also called as keratoconjunctivitis, is a health issue that develops once the eyes usually do not produce enough tear lubricant to always keep their surface moist. This produces an inflammatory response in their fragile tissues and, in addition, results in discomfort just like itching, redness and also sensitivity. If it is not treated properly, it may trigger the deterioration of the cornea as well as the conjunctiva. This is most common among the older people, though it can occur from young ages if there is exposure to contaminated environments or perhaps injuries. The great news is that the signs and symptoms can be controlled naturally.
Hyaline membranes help to the development of fibrosis and atelectasis (collapse) essential to decrease in gas exchange capability and lung dysfunction. These changes cause the lungs to become stiff, patient work hard to inspire. Hypoxemia and the stimulation of juxtacapillary receptors in the stiff lung parenchyma leading to increase respiratory rate and decrease in tidal volume. Breathing irregular increase carbon dioxide removal,
Acute is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very fast, before the kidneys can return the body to homeostasis. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include: Sleepiness, easy fatigue, confusion, and shortness of breath and lethargy. Treatment is aimed to the underlying disease, oxygen if the blood level is low, treatment to stop smoking, Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (called CPAP) or a breathing machine and some Bronchodilator drugs to reserve airway obstruction. Compensation refers to the body 's natural mechanisms of counteracting a primary acid-base disorder in an attempt to maintain homeostasis. In Respiratory Acidosis, the elevation in PCO2 result from a reduction in alveolar ventilation.
8.4 Discussion Diabetic patients often the wound heal poorly. They have higher incidence of DFU. Even if the patients have normal pulse rate the healing of wound and peripheral injuries are slow. The poor healing is diabetes is due to micro vascular change manifested by endothelial proliferation in small arteries and basement membrane thickening in capillaries. The obesity also leads to diabetes and reduces the immune capacity of the patient.
Right-sided heart failure is when the cardiac muscle on the right side of the heart becomes too weak to pump a sufficient amount of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. It is usually a complication of various conditions including lung diseases such as emphysema. This means that less oxygenated blood is taken from the lungs by the pulmonary veins and transported to the left side of the heart to then be pumped around the body. It can also produce a back-up of blood in the vessels within the body. This failure to pump sufficient blood to the lungs results in a build-up of fluid, which is known as oedema.
What are the symptoms and signs of cystic fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis causes protean manifestations, but the most common include lung and gastrointestinal symptoms. Respiratory symptoms often involve recurrent cough that eventually becomes persistent and productive of mucus. Patients also typically have wheezing and may complain of shortness of breath. Pancreatic insufficiency is usually characterized by: • Fat malabsorption • Diarrhea • Impaired growth • Vitamin deficiencies – vitamins A, D, E, and
Angina and Myocardial Infarction both occur due to low amounts of oxygenated blood in the tissues of the heart however in a myocardial infarction the tissue doesn’t just suffer for a short amount of time and then recovers like it would with angina, it actually dies. Mistovich & Karren (2013) state that tissue death usually occurs within the 20 to 30 minute window of oxygen starvation. Myocardial Infarction can be caused by coronary artery disease, like angina, and it too causes chest pain (Pollack, 2012). According to Daniel Limmer and Michael F. O’keefe (2008), on minimal occasions, the heart attack can be caused by an aneurysm which is when the heart’s coronary artery actually