The issue of “gender” and “gender identity” has occupied significant place in literary theories and more specifically in feminist literary criticism. Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines gender as – “the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex.” Feminist critics have attempted to distinguish between “sex” and “gender”. For them sex is a biological phenomena while gender is socially constructed. There is no direct relation between gender and biological sex. “Masculinity and femininity are essentially coercive categories that straitjacket men and women” (Nayar 83).
Gender could denote to communal institutionalization of sexual differences; they believed gender is utilized by those who comprehend not merely sexual inequality but far of sexual contrasts to be communal craft were by men and women are crafted to behave in precise methods that could be categorized as feminine of masculine (Okin, 1989: 116). 4 AMBIGUITY OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC
What is gender? Gender is the intersection of the relationships between sex, gender identity, sexuality and gender expression; gender is an achieved status Gender is not just sex, gender identity, gender expression and sexuality. These aspects are a basis for gender, but they do not determine gender. Sex is the measurable organs (anatomies), hormones and chromosomes that determines us as male, female or intersex. It is what we are born with, a product of biological processes (DNA, evolution, mutation, replication, reproduction, and selection).
Rebekah Hayes Instructor: Harmony Thibodeaux Psychology 2080 August 20, 2015 1) What are the important differences between biological sex, gender, and sexuality? Biological sex is our anatomy; this relates to a humans anatomical and reproductive system. Determined by karyotype (chromosomes of a cell, 46 XY karyotype in typical males and 46 XX karyotype in typical females), internal genitalia (testes and ovaries), external genitalia (scrotum and penis in males; labia and clitoris in females), and secondary sex differentiation at puberty (Pasterski, 2008). Gender is the state of being female or male; it is the separation of a species, commonly used with reference to social, behavioral and cultural differences preferably than biological ones. The word gender was used by Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang (1997) to refer to "cultural rules, ideologies, and expected behaviors for individuals of diverse phenotypes and psychosocial characteristics."
He learns about his hate for his own self, hate for Victor, and hate for the other people around him. Some say that this trait is the origin of his numerous murders throughout the novel. The author wanted to show that although the characters differ in ways of expression, they actually bond over the same personality traits. The novel “Frankenstein” demonstrates similarities between the creation and the creator, both use different ways of expressing their feelings of isolation, craving for companionship, and the ability to love or hate someone. The monster affects Victors health mentally and physically, both feeling guilt, which prevents both characters from facing the reality of the situation.
In the subject of sociology, there is difference between gender and sex. Sociology defines the sex as biological terms to assign each individual into different groups of female and male however, gender is the overall understanding of how culture of society shapes between women and men and how they affect and assign the meaning to our understanding from the biological point of view. From the sociology of gender point of view, it explains that how society have effect on our perception and understanding of the differences which is settled between the behavior of men and women as well as their norms, power, and attitude which are involved in the gender. In fact, functions and tasks are assigned to man and woman as suitable to them. For example before industrialization and modernization women used to work beside men in farms however, by the beginning of industrialization and modernization there could be seen more differences and distinction in the tasks as well as function.
Grammarians use the term “gender” to denote to structural categories based on sex, but liberated of sex difference. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010)describes sex as the biological state of being either female or male and gender as the socialcategorisation of females and males. “Sex” meant a biological difference whereas “gender” referred to a “linguistic” category. Linguists used the term “gender” to refer to grammatical categories based on sex, but independent of sex difference. The term gender will be used henceforth.
What is gender? Gender refers to the personal sexual identity of an individual, regardless of the person's biological and outward sex. Depending on the individual’s background and culture, how people outline masculinity and femininity can vary (Cherry, 2014). Gender is socially constructed. This refers to how we categories males and females into two sharply distinct groups.
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex. These are usually centered around opposing conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are myriad exceptions and variations. The specifics regarding these gendered expectations may vary substantially among cultures, while other characteristics may be common throughout a range of cultures. There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed. Various groups have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive
They also believe that gender difference is constructed by the social norm of a specific culture. Biological determinism has been challenged by feminist, cultural and societal theorists. These theorists believe that there is a complete distinction between gender and sex. Sex is biological whereas gender is cultural and social. It is said that the basis of women’s oppression is the social, political and cultural practices of society.