Heteronormativity is defined as a social doctrine of standards that basically force us to act according to the sex (and thus heteronormative gender associated with that sex) that we are born with ;for instance as devising relationships with the opposite sex, getting married and later giving birth to children. The author also outlines the key challenges of the social norms that preserve protection against the discrimination of non-heteronormative individuals in post-apartheid South Africa (Steyn and van Zyl 2009:3). There is so many concerns involving heteronormativity, to such an extent that it affects heterosexuals as well. Regardless of the advances, the question is whether or not there will ever be equality for same-sex couples with heterosexual ones. Thus these problems are caused by heteronormativity, in which the concepts is still applicable in the twenty first century.
In the end, author presents her own guidance for achieving gender equality on boards. Firstly, author claims that women are under-represented in positions of economic decision-making (boards). There is a serious lack of balance on boards within the EU. Thus, this chapter is divided into two parts. First one speaks of gender imbalance in general and on the supranational level, and the second one analyses the situation in Member States by comparing the few of the best and the worst results.
Gender inequality is a social justice issue that is prominent in several societies as it is a direct reflection of the systematic power distribution amongst the two binary genders. This form of inequality is reflected through a set of adverse behaviours projected from one individual to another, known as domestic violence. Individuals perform the identities that is associated with their gender role because it is what is culturally acceptable within their given society. Judith Butler’s theory of ‘Gender as a Performance’ depicts that the practices that individuals repeat and perform assure the elements that an identity is composed of. This theory is an embodiment of domestic violence as it establishes the inequality amongst the different genders, by allowing the male to perform his dominance, causing the female to feel inferior to this.
One of the cases that known as violate the women rights is in Sierra Leone, the case of Female Genital Mutilation. By doing the FGM there are at least two of women rights that had been taken such as freedom from gender discrimination and rights to physical integrity. In CEDAW article 1 takes a broad view of discrimination against women, defining it as “any distinction, exclusion, or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil, or any other field.” While the practice of FGM is proving that women is controlling by the
“Moving beyond recognition that gender stereotyping is an obstacle to women’s rights to meaningful progress in implementing human rights obligations to address harmful stereotypes and wrongful stereotyping will require all of us – treaty bodies, special procedures, States Parties, civil society, academics and many others – to give this issue the serious attention it deserves.” OHCHR commissioned report – ‘Gender Stereotyping as a human rights violation’ What is a stereotype? A generalised view or preconception about attributes or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by members of a particular social group or the roles that are or should be performed by, members of a particular social group. What is gender stereotype and what is gender stereotyping? A gender stereotype is a generalised view or preconception about attributes, or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by women and men or the roles that are or should be performed by men and women. Gender stereotypes can be both positive and negative for example, “women are nurturing” or “women are weak”.
QUESTION 1 Intersectionality Definition Intersectionality is a sociological theory that defines a number of threats of discrimination when a person’s identity differs with several other minority groups including age, ethnicity, race, health, and so forth. ( Hancock,2016). Intersectionality seeks to explain why these aspects of humanity cannot be separated and they are all related. For instance, a trans-woman of color may face discrimination in various capacities of her life, more so at work. The threat to violence and discrimination is increases due to the fact that she is of color and transgender at the same time.
Sex refers to one’s biological classification whereas gender has to do with the social definitions attached with being either male or female. Discrimination on the other hand according to the Cambridge dictionary is treating a person or particular group of people differently especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex or sexuality. There is no country in the world in which both men and women have equal status with women mostly being the victims of gender discrimination which is a pervasive feature in many developing countries. Scholars such as Sherry Ortner, Edwin Ardener and Jane Goodale all related gender discrimination to cultural construction and socialization. This indicates that gender discrimination is socially determined and can be changed by the proper and perpetuated
It must be understood that the aim of the author is to advocate that this rule is indeed discriminatory against women who are victims in sexual offences, therefore the comparison will be made between Botswana and other countries which have abolished the application of the rule in sexual offences because of its discriminative nature .These countries include , inter alia, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Canada and Fiji .The rationale behind the abolition of the cautionary rule in the aforementioned countries shall also be looked into .The chapter shall be submitted on the 13th of
2. Discrimination and Women’s Right of Inheritance Discrimination means “unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice”2. Discrimination against women may be racial, age; sex etc and it include inheritance, health, education, employment, social status, harassment etc. The convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women is a critical tool to achieve the full realization of equal rights for women worldwide by addressing discrimination in civil, cultural, economic, political and social domains. 2.1.
But overall this journal provide information of interest to feminist criticism in international law itself It can be concluded that sex and gender differences is important to show where the God-given and construct society. God-given is the provision of equality of women and men. While people shape gender inequality pose for one person. This causes the system of power in which the privileged men over women. Feminism is a wave of criticism as a new theory.