Gender Wage Discrimination Against Women

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ABSTRACT
Gender wage gap persist in the world for a very long time.Economic growth expands the gender wage gap instead of contracting it.The developed economies are also hit by this phenomenon,while the developing economies are the worst hit.Gender wage gap in industrial sectors leads to market inefficiencies and ultimately leads to market failures.The main reason behind this gap is the altered sex ratio and female labour force participation across the organised and unorganised sectors of the economy.The social norms and stereotypical consciousness about women’s work lead to restricted choices of employment for women in india.All these factors lead to scarce employment oppurtunities and wage discrimination against women in india.This paper
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Various economists used different techniques to highlight this circumstance. Most of the studies are based on Blinder-Oaxaca (1973) Decomposition technique to extricate between elucidated and unexplored variation in gender wage/pay gaps. Others have followed the method propounded by Brown et al. (1980) to comprehend between the two main segments of discrimination in labour markets, namely, unequal access to occupations and unequal pay within occupations.
Kingdon and Unni (2001) investigated wage differential across genders in Indian labour market in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The authors observed high wage discrimination against women workers in Indian labour market and insignificant role of education in resisting this discrimination.
Bhaumik and Chakrabarty (2008) investigated the differences in gender wage gap which was conducted in 1997 and 2005. The study Acknowldeged that gender wage gap reduced significantly between the two time periods owing to the rising returns to the experience of female workers in labour market in India.
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From the pie chart it is clear that majority of respondents believe that the wage gap is limited to only women.35.2 per cent of the people agree that the wage gap is limited to only women,while 21.6 per cent strongly agree rhat wage gap is limited to only women.21.6 per cent of the people are indifferent in their opinions,while 15.9 per cent of the people disagree.So,from the above stats,it can be concluded that gender wage gap is limited to only women.the reasons can be:
1. Industrial segregation and occupational segregation.
2. A lack of women in senior positions ,and a lack of flexible senior roles.
3. Women’s more problematic attachment to the workforce.
4. Differences in education,work experience and seniority
5. Discrimination both direct and indirect

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From the above Pie chart it is clear that the majority of respondents believe that the phenomenon of wage gap is more probable when men and women work in gender dominant industries.21.6 per cent of the respondents strongly believe that wage gap is more probable when men and women work in gender dominant industries,while 34.1 per cent of the respondents agree to the

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