Records of influenza symptoms date back thousands of years, with many massive outbreaks such as the 1918 Spanish flu and the 2009 Swine flu pandemic along the way. Scientists have been searching for a cure for years, but even through modern medicine, the fight against influenza continues. The structure, replication process, and limitations on modern medicine are just a few factors that keep influenza spreading across the world every year. Influenza is a special kind of microbe known as a virus. It is round and significantly smaller than its microbe counterparts such as bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota.
In the past century, the world was alarmed by influenza viruses that killed hundreds of thousands. The virus is extremely dangerous due to the fact that it transmits easily through food, air, water or by the contact of skin. The most recent flu pandemic occurred is in 2009 which is known as swine flu H1N1. The term “flu pandemic” can be defined as epidemic of a type of influenza virus that spreads seasonally in an enormous scale around the world. The emergence of problems to a country to brace the consequences of the infectious disease is frightful and need to be closely examined.
To this date Cholera is still a global problem and causes about 130.000 deaths every year. Another major outbreak was the 1918 Spanish flu, which was extremely contagious. 500 million people all around the world were infected and 50 to 100 million of them were killed, which was about 3-5% of the world’s population. What really accelerated the spread of the disease was the fact that for a long time reports about the outbreak were withheld from the public due to military reasons connected with World War I. Interestingly, the only country where newspapers reported on the flu was Spain, which was neutral. Therefore, the impression was created that this country was the only one affected.
Influenza presents as a rapid onset of malaise, chills fever, sore throat, nonproductive cough. Common cold symptoms are a runny nose and eyes, nasal stuffiness. A less aggressive onset with the initial appearance of nasal sinus irritation and excessive nasal secretions. Flu contrasts from a common cold in that it usually has a sudden, acute onset of fever, fatigue, and aching pains in the body.It may also cause viral pneumonia. Similarly to the common cold, a mild case of influenza can be complicated by secondary
(Ott) The regulations put out by government ensured that the outbreak would come to an immediate halt, and if a new epidemic were to sweep through the states, it would be derailed. Another outbreak of influenza became prevalent in England in 1933. A doctor was able to isolate the disease and noticed how it spread. Lots of this was due to research from the Spanish Influenza, and the death toll was much lower. (Youngdahl) This new outbreak proved that the American treatments and vaccinations were effective.
Emerging influenza is a seasonal viral disease caused by influenza A virus (H1N1). It spreads rapidly and costs society a considerable amount in terms of health care expenses, reduction in productivity as well as loss of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the outbreak to be a pandemic because of growing worldwide cases . It cost the society a huge amount in terms of morbidity and mortality and monetary cost as well with a typical flu pandemic. The existence of influenza virus among human population in many countries of the world including India has emphasized public health care organizations to take effective preventive measure.
INTRODUCTION Influenza viruses constitute the genus Orthomyxovirus belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae, which consists of three species: A, B, and C. They are negative, single stranded RNA viruses. These viruses cause influenza also known as flu. Influenza is contagious acute respiratory disease that is marked by fever, chills, headache and feeling tired. It causes seasonal epidemics during winter mostly in the United States and Canada. Type C causes less severe flu compared to flu caused by type A and B. MODES OF TRANSMISSION Influenza spreads by tiny droplets when people with a flu talk, cough or sneeze.
As mentioned in my first paragraph, AIDS was first recognised in In 1981 and It was recognised as a global killer, AIDS now threatens to excel the Black Death of the 14th century and the influenza pandemic which was from 1918–1920. Each of which killed not less than 50 million people (Kohn,G, 1995). Some of the emerging and ‘re-emerging diseases that have followed the appearance of AIDS have been minor curiosities, for example; in 2003 there were cases of monkey pox imported into the United States (Wisconsin, 2003) whereas other infections. Such as severe acute respiratory syndrome emerged in the same year, but have had a worldwide impact. Emerging infections can be expected to remain a considerable Challenge for the future.
Introduction Humanity has recurrently been facing pandemics. A pandemic is an epidemic, an outbreak of an infectious disease that spreads worldwide or at least across a large region. Some of the most known events have been the Spanish flu (at the beginning of the 20th century) or the H1N1 pandemics (at the beginning of the 21st century). It can already be noted that pandemics which were more localized in the past have now a world scope and world impact due to the travelling’s international intensity. The most recent pandemics that the world is facing is Ebola, which started in Western Africa, impacts heavily three countries, and leads to a number of countries shutting down their borders to nationals or visitors originating from the impacted
The recent emergence of infectious diseases appears to be driven by globalisation and ecological disruption," The best known example of a disease that came from wild animal to human and made a global epidemic is HIV, which is a virus called “AIDS”. HIV or AIDS came from chimpanzees to humans in West Africa from the wild life in the last century and this diseases killed many people. The swine flu epidemic that showed in Mexico also came from the mixing of viruses that infected pigs, swine flu killed many people because they made a wild animal “pork” as a pet animal and they didn’t care about the disease that will carry. And