Essay On Groundwater

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth 's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. Groundwater, which is in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the Nation 's most important natural resources. Groundwater is the source of about 33 percent of the water that country and city water departments supply to households and businesses . It provides drinking water for more than 90 percent of the rural population who do not get their water delivered to them from a county/city water department or private water company. Some water underlies the Earth 's surface almost everywhere, beneath…show more content…
Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years…show more content…
Monitoring of groundwater regime is an effort to obtain information on ground water levels and chemical quality through representative sampling. In India, most of the population is dependent on groundwater as the only source of drinking water supply. The groundwater is believed to be comparatively much clean and free from pollution than surface water. But prolonged discharge of industrial effluents, domestic sewage and solid waste dumping results in pollution of groundwater and health problems. The industrial waste water, sewage sludge and solid waste materials are currently being discharged into the environment indiscriminately. These materials enter subsurface aquifers resulting in the pollution of irrigation and drinking water (Girija et al., 2007). Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algal blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. As per the latest estimate of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), about 29,000 million litre/day of wastewater generated from class-I cities and class-II towns out of which about 45% is generated from 35 metro-cities alone (Mangukiya et.al,
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